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The Responsibility To Protect And The International Criminal Court

Author: Serena Sharma
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134703872
Size: 47.29 MB
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This book provides an account of how the responsibility to protect (R2P) and the International Criminal Court (ICC) were applied in Kenya. In the aftermath of the disputed presidential election on 27 December 2007, Kenya descended into its worst crisis since independence. The 2007-08 post-election crisis in Kenya was among the first situations in which there was an appeal to both the responsibility to protect and a responsibility to prosecute. Despite efforts to ensure compatibility between R2P and the ICC, the two were far from coherent in this case, as the measures designed to protect the population in Kenya undermined the efforts to prosecute perpetrators. This book will highlight how the African Union-sponsored mediation process effectively brought an end to eight weeks of bloodshed, while simultaneously entrenching those involved in orchestrating the violence. Having secured positions of power, politicians bearing responsibility for the violence set out to block prosecutions at both the domestic and international levels, eventually leading the cases against them to unravel. As this book will reveal, by utilising the machinery of the state as a shield against prosecution, the Government of Kenya reverted to an approach to sovereignty that both R2P and the ICC were specifically designed to counteract. This book will be of interest to students of the Responsibility to Protect, humanitarian intervention, African politics, war and conflict studies and IR/Security Studies in general.

Evaluating The Responsibility To Protect

Author: Noële Crossley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317307062
Size: 71.31 MB
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This book evaluates the extent to which the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) has consolidated as a norm in international society. A consolidated norm in international society is defined here as a regularised pattern of behaviour that is widely accepted as appropriate within a given social context. The analysis is based on the assumption that the R2P could be regarded as a consolidated norm if it were applied consistently when genocide and other mass atrocities occur; and if international responses routinely conformed to the core principles inherent in the R2P: seeking government consent, multilateralism, prevention and regionalism. This book employs Finnemore and Sikkink’s norm lifecycle model to determine the putative norm’s degree of consolidation, with in-depth case studies of the international responses to crises in Darfur and Kenya serving to illuminate the findings. It advances the argument that, whilst the R2P had fully emerged as a prospective norm by 2005, it has not yet fully consolidated as an international norm. The R2P has been remarkably successful at pervading the international discourse but has been somewhat less successful at consistency in implementation in terms of adherence to its core principles as outlined above (the qualitative dimension of the R2P). Furthermore, it has been least successful, to date, in terms of consistency across cases in terms of resolve and tenacity. The volume concludes with a reflection on the norm's progress so far, and its prospects for further consolidation, assuming the R2P continues on its current trajectory. This book will be of much interest to students of the Responsibility to Protect, humanitarian intervention, international law, security studies and IR.

International Organizations And The Rise Of Isil

Author: Daniel Silander
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315536080
Size: 23.41 MB
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This book seeks to understand the obligations of the international community to promote and protect state and human security in situations of international humanitarian crises. In Iraq and Syria, as well as in neighbouring states, the rise of ISIL has raised serious state and human security challenges. This study explores the relationships between the Global-Regional Partnership, the United Nations and nine organizations in their attempt to deal with the challenges presented by ISIL. Each organization is analyzed in terms of how it has responded in the past and how it is now responding to the ISIL threat based on three perspectives; resource capacities (military, political, economic, technological, normative); willingness and readiness; and impediments to capacity and abilities. The overall aim is to discern what capacities and abilities international organizations have to protect state and human security and prevent civilians from mass atrocities inflicted by ISIL forces. The study addresses the role of international organizations when the UNSC is unable or unwilling to uphold the most fundamental norms and values in the UN Charter. This approach acknowledges that within the international community there is an overall acceptance on security for a partnership between the UN and regional organizations, but that there is also a contested call for a renegotiated international contract on state and human security. This volume will be of much interest to students of international relations, human rights, peace and conflict studies, terrorism studies and International Relations.

Reviewing The Responsibility To Protect

Author: Ramesh Thakur
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351016776
Size: 55.53 MB
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This volume is a collection of some of the key essays by Ramesh Thakur on the origins, implementation and future prospects of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) norm. The book offers a comprehensive yet accessible review of the origins, evolution, advances and shortcomings of the R2P principle. A literature review is followed by an overview of the background, meaning and development of R2P. With a focus on the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), Part I analyses the features of, and explains the factors that make for success and failure of commission diplomacy. Part II discusses the controversies surrounding efforts to implement R2P, including the role and importance of emerging powers. Part III describes the remaining protection gaps and explains why R2P will remain relevant because it is essentially demand driven. Finally, the book concludes with a look back at the origins of R2P and looks ahead to possible future directions. This book will be essential for students of the Responsibility to Protect, and of much interest to students of global governance, human rights, international law and international relations.

Mit Zweierlei Ma

Author: Wolfgang Kaleck
Publisher: Verlag Klaus Wagenbach
ISBN: 3803141087
Size: 68.45 MB
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Am 1. Juli 2012 wird der Internationale Strafgerichtshof in Den Haag zehn Jahre alt. Doch die Hoffnungen auf eine universale Strafverfolgung von Menschheitsverbrechen wurden enttäuscht. Die Praxis internationaler und nationaler Gerichte muss deswegen verändert werden. Der Erfolg der Nürnberger Prozesse nährte die Erwartung, in Zukunft alle Regierungen für begangene Verbrechen vor Gericht stellen zu können. Aber der Kalte Krieg verhinderte jahrzehntelang eine Umsetzung dieses Versprechens. Wolfgang Kaleck zeichnet in diesem Buch die schier endlose Serie von ungesühnten Völkerrechtsstraftaten westlicher Machthaber von Algerien über Vietnam bis in die Türkei und Kolumbien nach. Trotz der vielversprechenden Schaffung des Internationalen Strafgerichtshofs und der Tribunale für Ruanda und Jugoslawien gibt es noch viele Gründe für Kritik an den stattfindenden wie an den ausbleibenden Verfahren. Kaleck bemängelt, dass das Völkerstrafrecht überwiegend nur auf besiegte afrikanische Potentaten und Generäle angewandt wird und nicht auf die Verbrechen der Großmächte, insbesondere des Westens. Damit stellt die herrschende selektive Strafverfolgungspraxis das Prinzip universell geltender Menschenrechte generell in Frage.

The Governance Of Complementary Global Regimes And The Pursuit Of Human Security

Author: Andrea Marrone
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781780684024
Size: 32.57 MB
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This book offers an overview of the challenges in the emerging regime of international criminal justice as a tool of sustainable peace. It illustrates the impact of the regime on international law and international relations, focusing on the obstacles to and concerns of its governance in the context of the maintenance and restoration of international peace and security. Andrea Marrone advocates for an appropriate interaction strategy between the United Nations and the Rome Statute institutions for the sake of human security. In multiple and inter-linked country situations, the failure of strategies to prevent mass atrocity crimes have severely compromised the safety of civilians, including their individual fundamental rights. In several countries-such as Libya, Syria, Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Central African Republic, Ivory Coast, and Mali-civilians have severely suffered the consequences of such failure. Furthermore, the right of humanitarian intervention by the international community is now challenged and qualified by the responsibility to protect civilians in situations of mass atrocity crimes. Such an international norm represents unfinished business in global politics and is considered by many to be far from capable of preserving the rule of international law. The preservation of the rule of law requires discussions and the advocacy of global values in international relations, such as multilateralism, collective responsibility, global solidarity, and mutual accountability. (Series: Supranational Criminal Law: Capita Selecta, Vol. 21) [Subject: Criminal Justice, International Law, Rule of Law]

In Wessen Namen

Author: Armin von Bogdandy
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 3518734075
Size: 32.80 MB
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Internationale Gerichte sind zu multifunktionalen Akteuren des globalen Regierens erstarkt. Das überlieferte Verständnis der internationalen Gerichtsbarkeit, welches diese allein als Instrument der Streitbeilegung in den Händen der Staaten ansieht, ist dieser Entwicklung gegenüber allerdings blind. Armin von Bogdandy und Ingo Venzke legen einen neuen Ansatz vor, der den Funktionen internationaler Rechtsprechung jenseits der Streitbeilegung nachspürt, die internationale Spruchpraxis als Ausübung öffentlicher Gewalt konzipiert und ihre demokratische Rechtfertigung prüft. Dadurch erschließen sie die legitimatorische Problematik und eröffnen zugleich bislang ungesehene Möglichkeiten der Weiterentwicklung internationaler Gerichtsbarkeit.