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The Riemann Hypothesis

Author: Peter Borwein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387721258
Size: 47.58 MB
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This book presents the Riemann Hypothesis, connected problems, and a taste of the body of theory developed towards its solution. It is targeted at the educated non-expert. Almost all the material is accessible to any senior mathematics student, and much is accessible to anyone with some university mathematics. The appendices include a selection of original papers. This collection is not very large and encompasses only the most important milestones in the evolution of theory connected to the Riemann Hypothesis. The appendices also include some authoritative expository papers. These are the "expert witnesses” whose insight into this field is both invaluable and irreplaceable.

Gamma

Author: Julian Havil
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400832535
Size: 65.24 MB
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Among the many constants that appear in mathematics, π, e, and i are the most familiar. Following closely behind is y, or gamma, a constant that arises in many mathematical areas yet maintains a profound sense of mystery. In a tantalizing blend of history and mathematics, Julian Havil takes the reader on a journey through logarithms and the harmonic series, the two defining elements of gamma, toward the first account of gamma's place in mathematics. Introduced by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), who figures prominently in this book, gamma is defined as the limit of the sum of 1 + 1/2 + 1/3 + . . . Up to 1/n, minus the natural logarithm of n--the numerical value being 0.5772156. . . . But unlike its more celebrated colleagues π and e, the exact nature of gamma remains a mystery--we don't even know if gamma can be expressed as a fraction. Among the numerous topics that arise during this historical odyssey into fundamental mathematical ideas are the Prime Number Theorem and the most important open problem in mathematics today--the Riemann Hypothesis (though no proof of either is offered!). Sure to be popular with not only students and instructors but all math aficionados, Gamma takes us through countries, centuries, lives, and works, unfolding along the way the stories of some remarkable mathematics from some remarkable mathematicians.

Equivalents Of The Riemann Hypothesis

Author: Kevin Broughan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107197120
Size: 68.36 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The Riemann hypothesis (RH) is perhaps the most important outstanding problem in mathematics. This two-volume text presents the main known equivalents to RH using analytic and computational methods. The book is gentle on the reader with definitions repeated, proofs split into logical sections, and graphical descriptions of the relations between different results. It also includes extensive tables, supplementary computational tools, and open problems suitable for research. Accompanying software is free to download. These books will interest mathematicians who wish to update their knowledge, graduate and senior undergraduate students seeking accessible research problems in number theory, and others who want to explore and extend results computationally. Each volume can be read independently. Volume 1 presents classical and modern arithmetic equivalents to RH, with some analytic methods. Volume 2 covers equivalences with a strong analytic orientation, supported by an extensive set of appendices containing fully developed proofs.

Open Problems In Mathematics

Author: John Forbes Nash, Jr.
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319321625
Size: 48.97 MB
Format: PDF
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The goal in putting together this unique compilation was to present the current status of the solutions to some of the most essential open problems in pure and applied mathematics. Emphasis is also given to problems in interdisciplinary research for which mathematics plays a key role. This volume comprises highly selected contributions by some of the most eminent mathematicians in the international mathematical community on longstanding problems in very active domains of mathematical research. A joint preface by the two volume editors is followed by a personal farewell to John F. Nash, Jr. written by Michael Th. Rassias. An introduction by Mikhail Gromov highlights some of Nash’s legendary mathematical achievements. The treatment in this book includes open problems in the following fields: algebraic geometry, number theory, analysis, discrete mathematics, PDEs, differential geometry, topology, K-theory, game theory, fluid mechanics, dynamical systems and ergodic theory, cryptography, theoretical computer science, and more. Extensive discussions surrounding the progress made for each problem are designed to reach a wide community of readers, from graduate students and established research mathematicians to physicists, computer scientists, economists, and research scientists who are looking to develop essential and modern new methods and theories to solve a variety of open problems.

Analytic Number Theory Approximation Theory And Special Functions

Author: Gradimir V. Milovanović
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 149390258X
Size: 61.57 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book, in honor of Hari M. Srivastava, discusses essential developments in mathematical research in a variety of problems. It contains thirty-five articles, written by eminent scientists from the international mathematical community, including both research and survey works. Subjects covered include analytic number theory, combinatorics, special sequences of numbers and polynomials, analytic inequalities and applications, approximation of functions and quadratures, orthogonality and special and complex functions. The mathematical results and open problems discussed in this book are presented in a simple and self-contained manner. The book contains an overview of old and new results, methods, and theories toward the solution of longstanding problems in a wide scientific field, as well as new results in rapidly progressing areas of research. The book will be useful for researchers and graduate students in the fields of mathematics, physics and other computational and applied sciences.

Prime Obsession

Author: John Derbyshire
Publisher: Joseph Henry Press
ISBN: 0309141257
Size: 53.64 MB
Format: PDF
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In August 1859 Bernhard Riemann, a little-known 32-year old mathematician, presented a paper to the Berlin Academy titled: "On the Number of Prime Numbers Less Than a Given Quantity." In the middle of that paper, Riemann made an incidental remark â€" a guess, a hypothesis. What he tossed out to the assembled mathematicians that day has proven to be almost cruelly compelling to countless scholars in the ensuing years. Today, after 150 years of careful research and exhaustive study, the question remains. Is the hypothesis true or false? Riemann's basic inquiry, the primary topic of his paper, concerned a straightforward but nevertheless important matter of arithmetic â€" defining a precise formula to track and identify the occurrence of prime numbers. But it is that incidental remark â€" the Riemann Hypothesis â€" that is the truly astonishing legacy of his 1859 paper. Because Riemann was able to see beyond the pattern of the primes to discern traces of something mysterious and mathematically elegant shrouded in the shadows â€" subtle variations in the distribution of those prime numbers. Brilliant for its clarity, astounding for its potential consequences, the Hypothesis took on enormous importance in mathematics. Indeed, the successful solution to this puzzle would herald a revolution in prime number theory. Proving or disproving it became the greatest challenge of the age. It has become clear that the Riemann Hypothesis, whose resolution seems to hang tantalizingly just beyond our grasp, holds the key to a variety of scientific and mathematical investigations. The making and breaking of modern codes, which depend on the properties of the prime numbers, have roots in the Hypothesis. In a series of extraordinary developments during the 1970s, it emerged that even the physics of the atomic nucleus is connected in ways not yet fully understood to this strange conundrum. Hunting down the solution to the Riemann Hypothesis has become an obsession for many â€" the veritable "great white whale" of mathematical research. Yet despite determined efforts by generations of mathematicians, the Riemann Hypothesis defies resolution. Alternating passages of extraordinarily lucid mathematical exposition with chapters of elegantly composed biography and history, Prime Obsession is a fascinating and fluent account of an epic mathematical mystery that continues to challenge and excite the world. Posited a century and a half ago, the Riemann Hypothesis is an intellectual feast for the cognoscenti and the curious alike. Not just a story of numbers and calculations, Prime Obsession is the engrossing tale of a relentless hunt for an elusive proof â€" and those who have been consumed by it.

Recent Trends In Computer Networks And Distributed Systems Security

Author: Sabu M. Thampi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642341357
Size: 46.83 MB
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Trends in Computer Networks and Distributed Systems Security, held in Trivandrum, India, in October 2012. The 34 revised full papers and 8 poster presentations were carefully reviewed and selected from 112 submissions. The papers cover various topics in Computer Networks and Distributed Systems.

Equivalents Of The Riemann Hypothesis Volume 1 Arithmetic Equivalents

Author: Kevin Broughan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108195415
Size: 36.10 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 4816
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The Riemann hypothesis (RH) is perhaps the most important outstanding problem in mathematics. This two-volume text presents the main known equivalents to RH using analytic and computational methods. The book is gentle on the reader with definitions repeated, proofs split into logical sections, and graphical descriptions of the relations between different results. It also includes extensive tables, supplementary computational tools, and open problems suitable for research. Accompanying software is free to download. These books will interest mathematicians who wish to update their knowledge, graduate and senior undergraduate students seeking accessible research problems in number theory, and others who want to explore and extend results computationally. Each volume can be read independently. Volume 1 presents classical and modern arithmetic equivalents to RH, with some analytic methods. Volume 2 covers equivalences with a strong analytic orientation, supported by an extensive set of appendices containing fully developed proofs.

Convex Analysis And Monotone Operator Theory In Hilbert Spaces

Author: Heinz H. Bauschke
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319483110
Size: 30.82 MB
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This reference text, now in its second edition, offers a modern unifying presentation of three basic areas of nonlinear analysis: convex analysis, monotone operator theory, and the fixed point theory of nonexpansive operators. Taking a unique comprehensive approach, the theory is developed from the ground up, with the rich connections and interactions between the areas as the central focus, and it is illustrated by a large number of examples. The Hilbert space setting of the material offers a wide range of applications while avoiding the technical difficulties of general Banach spaces. The authors have also drawn upon recent advances and modern tools to simplify the proofs of key results making the book more accessible to a broader range of scholars and users. Combining a strong emphasis on applications with exceptionally lucid writing and an abundance of exercises, this text is of great value to a large audience including pure and applied mathematicians as well as researchers in engineering, data science, machine learning, physics, decision sciences, economics, and inverse problems. The second edition of Convex Analysis and Monotone Operator Theory in Hilbert Spaces greatly expands on the first edition, containing over 140 pages of new material, over 270 new results, and more than 100 new exercises. It features a new chapter on proximity operators including two sections on proximity operators of matrix functions, in addition to several new sections distributed throughout the original chapters. Many existing results have been improved, and the list of references has been updated. Heinz H. Bauschke is a Full Professor of Mathematics at the Kelowna campus of the University of British Columbia, Canada. Patrick L. Combettes, IEEE Fellow, was on the faculty of the City University of New York and of Université Pierre et Marie Curie – Paris 6 before joining North Carolina State University as a Distinguished Professor of Mathematics in 2016.