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The Seductions Of Quantification

Author: Sally Engle Merry
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022626131X
Size: 51.39 MB
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We live in a world where seemingly everything can be measured. We rely on indicators to translate social phenomena into simple, quantified terms, which in turn can be used to guide individuals, organizations, and governments in establishing policy. Yet counting things requires finding a way to make them comparable. And in the process of translating the confusion of social life into neat categories, we inevitably strip it of context and meaning—and risk hiding or distorting as much as we reveal. With The Seductions of Quantification, leading legal anthropologist Sally Engle Merry investigates the techniques by which information is gathered and analyzed in the production of global indicators on human rights, gender violence, and sex trafficking. Although such numbers convey an aura of objective truth and scientific validity, Merry argues persuasively that measurement systems constitute a form of power by incorporating theories about social change in their design but rarely explicitly acknowledging them. For instance, the US State Department’s Trafficking in Persons Report, which ranks countries in terms of their compliance with antitrafficking activities, assumes that prosecuting traffickers as criminals is an effective corrective strategy—overlooking cultures where women and children are frequently sold by their own families. As Merry shows, indicators are indeed seductive in their promise of providing concrete knowledge about how the world works, but they are implemented most successfully when paired with context-rich qualitative accounts grounded in local knowledge.

Working Law

Author: Lauren B. Edelman
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022640093X
Size: 47.87 MB
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Since the passage of the Civil Rights Act, virtually all companies have antidiscrimination policies in place. Although these policies represent some progress, women and minorities remain underrepresented within the workplace as a whole and even more so when you look at high-level positions. They also tend to be less well paid. How is it that discrimination remains so prevalent in the American workplace despite the widespread adoption of policies designed to prevent it? One reason for the limited success of antidiscrimination policies, argues Lauren B. Edelman, is that the law regulating companies is broad and ambiguous, and managers therefore play a critical role in shaping what it means in daily practice. Often, what results are policies and procedures that are largely symbolic and fail to dispel long-standing patterns of discrimination. Even more troubling, these meanings of the law that evolve within companies tend to eventually make their way back into the legal domain, inconspicuously influencing lawyers for both plaintiffs and defendants and even judges. When courts look to the presence of antidiscrimination policies and personnel manuals to infer fair practices and to the presence of diversity training programs without examining whether these policies are effective in combating discrimination and achieving racial and gender diversity, they wind up condoning practices that deviate considerably from the legal ideals.

The Sit Ins

Author: Christopher W. Schmidt
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022652258X
Size: 48.76 MB
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On February 1, 1960, four African American college students entered the Woolworth department store in Greensboro, North Carolina, and sat down at the lunch counter. This lunch counter, like most in the American South, refused to serve black customers. The four students remained in their seats until the store closed. In the following days, they returned, joined by growing numbers of fellow students. These “sit-in” demonstrations soon spread to other southern cities, drawing in thousands of students and coalescing into a protest movement that would transform the struggle for racial equality. The Sit-Ins tells the story of the student lunch counter protests and the national debate they sparked over the meaning of the constitutional right of all Americans to equal protection of the law. Christopher W. Schmidt describes how behind the now-iconic scenes of African American college students sitting in quiet defiance at “whites only” lunch counters lies a series of underappreciated legal dilemmas—about the meaning of the Constitution, the capacity of legal institutions to remedy different forms of injustice, and the relationship between legal reform and social change. The students’ actions initiated a national conversation over whether the Constitution’s equal protection clause extended to the activities of private businesses that served the general public. The courts, the traditional focal point for accounts of constitutional disputes, played an important but ultimately secondary role in this story. The great victory of the sit-in movement came not in the Supreme Court, but in Congress, with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, landmark legislation that recognized the right African American students had claimed for themselves four years earlier. The Sit-Ins invites a broader understanding of how Americans contest and construct the meaning of their Constitution.

Research Methods In Human Rights

Author: Bård A. Andreassen
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 178536779X
Size: 18.86 MB
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Methodological discussion has largely been neglected in human rights research, with legal scholars in particular tending to address research methods and methodological reflection implicitly rather than explicitly. This book advances thinking on human rights methodology, offering instruction and guidance on the methodological options for human rights research.

Revisiting The Law And Governance Of Trafficking Forced Labor And Modern Slavery

Author: Prabha Kotiswaran
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108228739
Size: 52.60 MB
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In the decades following the globalization of the world economy, trafficking, forced labor and modern slavery have emerged as significant global problems. States negotiated the Palermo Protocol in 2000 under which they agreed to criminalize trafficking, primarily understood as an issue of serious organized crime. Sixteen years later, leading academics, activists and policy makers from international organizations come together in this edited volume and adopt an inter-disciplinary, multi-stakeholder approach to revisit trafficking through the lens of labor migration and extreme exploitation and, in the process, rethink the law and governance of trafficking. This volume considers many key factors, including the evolving international law on trafficking, the relationship between trafficking, slavery, indenture and domestic migration law and policy as well as newly emergent techniques of governance, including indicators, all with a view to furthering prospects for lasting economic justice in a globalized world.

Governance Im 21 Jahrhundert

Author: OECD
Publisher: OECD Publishing
ISBN: 9789264589360
Size: 63.15 MB
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Mit dem Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts stehen weitere dramatische Umwälzungen in Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft an der Tagesordnung. Der Bericht untersucht Chancen und Risiken wirtschaftlicher, gesellschaftlicher und technologischer Natur.

Die Neue Sklaverei

Author: Kevin Bales
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783888972645
Size: 78.72 MB
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Ebenso wie das Buch 'Ware Mensch' (BA 12/00), mit dem der italienische Experte für internationale organisierte Kriminalität, Pino Arlacchi, kürzlich eine engagierte faktenreiche Darstellung der bestehenden Formen moderner Sklaverei vorlegte, zeichnet sich auch die umfangreiche Untersuchung des amerikanischen Soziologen und Unterstützers der Organisation 'Anti-Slavery International', Kevin Bales, durch engagierte Expertise und große Anschaulichkeit aus. Die ausführlich geschilderten Fallbeispiele aus Thailand, Mauretanien, Brasilien, Pakistan und Indien zeigen in differenzierter Wahrnehmung auch fließende Übergänge von harten Arbeitsbedingungen zu echter Versklavung, beleuchten nationale und internationale Hintergründe sowie zu beobachtende Ansätze einer Änderung der Verhältnisse. Arlacchi wie Bales können gleichermaßen als fundierte und aktuelle Problembeschreibungen öffentlichen Bibliotheken jeder Größe neben dem Schüler geeigneten Bändchen der Süd-Nord-Reihe 'Zum Beispiel Sklaverei' (BA 4/96) sehr empfohlen werden. (2 S).

Bienendemokratie

Author: Thomas D. Seeley
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
ISBN: 3104017166
Size: 23.47 MB
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»Ein wunderbares Buch über den besten Freund des Menschen unter den Insekten...« Edward O. Wilson Die Bienenkönigin ist keine absolute Herrscherin. Im Gegenteil: Bienen entscheiden alle gemeinsam als Schwarm, sie erforschen kollektiv einen Sachverhalt und debattieren lebhaft, um letztlich einen Konsens zu finden. Der bekannte Verhaltensforscher Thomas D. Seeley untersucht seit Jahrzehnten in akribischer Kleinarbeit das Leben der Bienen. In seinem spannend geschriebenen Buch zeigt er anschaulich, was wir von diesen wunderbaren Insekten lernen können und dass die Entscheidung mehrerer klüger als die Einzelner sein kann. Ein reich bebildertes, ebenso faszinierendes wie anregendes Buch. »Seeleys Enthusiasmus und Bewunderung für Bienen sind ansteckend, seine Forschungen meisterhaft.« New York Times »Brillant.« Nature »Fesselnd und bezaubernd.« Science »Das hinreißendste Wissenschaftsbuch des Jahres.« Financial Times