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The Somatotrophic Axis In Brain Function

Author: Fred Nyberg
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080498167
Size: 76.45 MB
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The somatotropic axis is one of the major hormonal systems regulating postnatal growth in mammals. It interacts with the central nervous system on several levels. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors are expressed in many brain areas including the hippocampus, pituitary and hypothalamus. GH and IGF-I are important factors in the development and differentiation of the CNS and have protective properties in dementia, as well as in traumatic and ischaemic injury of the CNS. Also GH has an important impact on mood and well-being with GH secretory capacity being reduced in depression. This volume will include chapters (1) on basic knowledge on GH/IGF-1, (2) on localization of GH/IGF-1 and their receptors in the CNS, including blood brain barrier transport of both hormones, (3) on actions of the two hormones on CNS function (basic science), (4) on clinical aspects of GH/IGF-1 in relation to various CNS functions and disorders, and finally (5) on some future perspectives in this area of science. Contents are well balanced and cover a variety of relevant topics from basic to clinical research International selection of authors, with a good representation of the research on growth hormones A timely publication which will be useful to scientists in both basic and clinical research

New Concepts Of Psychostimulants Induced Neurotoxicity

Author: Hari Shanker Sharma
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080922904
Size: 79.99 MB
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Published since 1959, International Review of Neurobiology is a well-known series appealing to neuroscientists, clinicians, psychologists, physiologists, and pharmacologists. Led by an internationally renowned editorial board, this important serial publishes both eclectic volumes made up of timely reviews and thematic volumes that focus on recent progress in a specific area of neurobiology research. With recent advancements in new knowledge, it has become evident that psychostimulants and related drugs of abuse are influencing our central nervous system (CNS) remarkably and could alter their function for a longtime. This volume is the first to focus on substance abuse induced brain pathology in the widest sense as it covers alterations in neuronal, glial and endothelial cell functions under the influence of acute or chronic usage of substance abuse.

Growth Hormone Therapy In Pediatrics

Author: Michael B. Ranke
Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
ISBN: 3805582560
Size: 29.25 MB
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For 20 years, KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database) has provided an outstanding tool for monitoring the use, efficacy and safety of growth hormone (GH) treatment in children with short stature of varying origin. This volume offers a comprehensive update of the continuing experiences in KIGS and is based on data from more than 50 countries and more than 60,000 patients. International experts analyse in detail the basic auxological characteristics of patients and their response to GH treatment for a broad spectrum of growth disorders. These include idiopathic GH deficiency, organic GH deficiency due to a variety of causes such as congenital malformations and syndromes, genetic disorders or treatment for leukaemia or central nervous system tumours and short stature in children born small for gestational age, specific syndromes and systemic disorders. Each growth disorder is also covered by a review of relevant published data by international experts. KIGS has also established itself as a primary source of information about adverse events during long-term GH treatment in children. The recent analysis of KIGS data has revealed no new adverse drug reactions since the 10-year follow-up. Therefore, treatment with GH seems a low-risk intervention in children and adolescents with various growth disorders. The process of developing disease-specific growth response prediction models has been ongoing in KIGS for many years. The available models are accurate, precise and have a relatively high degree of predictive power, although further predictors of the growth response remain to be identified. The KIGS prediction models can be applied prospectively to new patients, enabling their GH therapy to be better tailored and monitored to achieve optimal growth, safety and cost outcomes. The future of KIGS within the era of evidence-based medicine will continue to depend upon the quality of the data reported. Therefore, the commitment of participating physicians will continue to be a decisive element. The ongoing recognition of the importance of valid safety and efficacy information in the practice of paediatric endocrinology is exemplified by this valuable international collaboration of clinicians and the pharmaceutical community.

Traumatic Brain Injury

Author: Mark J. Ashley
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315354179
Size: 30.46 MB
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In the last decade neuroscience has matured at a remarkable pace, shedding a far more exacting light on mechanisms of neurophysiology, pathophysiology of injury, neuroendocrinology, neuro-immunology, neuroplasticity, neuropharmacology and neurodegenerative processes. Individuals with acquired brain injury are treated earlier and now achieve far better recovery than in the past.

The Brain And Host Defense

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444535450
Size: 64.93 MB
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It is now well recognized that the brain, and especially the hypothalamus, plays an important role in the regulation of immune reactions and inflammation. This book aims to review our current state of knowledge of this important field. Key historical findings are presented, and the reciprocal interactions between the brain and the immune system are examined. Particular emphasis is placed on inflammation, a critical host defense reaction that serves as an effector response for both the adaptive and innate immune systems. Mechanisms implicated in brain defense, as well as in more general host defense, are discussed. The regulatory influences of the brain on inflammatory responses are included with particular reference to the role of the hypothalamus, which is also the main director the hormonal regulation of immune/inflammatory. Gender-related differences in immune responsiveness, circadian modulator of immune responses, and evidence that behavioral conditioning (e.g. reward) of immune responses is possible are used as examples to reinforce the notion that the neuroendocrine system exerts a fundamental and complex regulatory influence on the immune system. * Presents timely issues such as immunological aspects of the blood-brain-barrier and the role of inflammatory mediators in the evolution of strokes and degenerative diseases * Includes analysis of the role of the brain in the adaptive responses to disease * Evaluates the argument that further knowledge of the influence of the brain on the immune system will provide new insights to the pathophysiology infectious and autoimmune diseases

Handbook Of The Biology Of Aging

Author: Edward J. Masoro
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080491405
Size: 32.16 MB
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The Handbook of the Biology of Aging, Sixth Edition, provides a comprehensive overview of the latest research findings in the biology of aging. Intended as a summary for researchers, it is also adopted as a high level textbook for graduate and upper level undergraduate courses. The Sixth Edition is 20% larger than the Fifth Edition, with 21 chapters summarizing the latest findings in research on the biology of aging. The content of the work is virtually 100% new. Though a selected few topics are similar to the Fifth Edition, these chapters are authored by new contributors with new information. The majority of the chapters are completely new in both content and authorship. The Sixth Edition places greater emphasis and coverage on competing and complementary theories of aging, broadening the discussion of conceptual issues. Greater coverage of techniques used to study biological issues of aging include computer modeling, gene profiling, and demographic analyses. Coverage of research on Drosophilia is expanded from one chapter to four. New chapters on mammalian models discuss aging in relation to skeletal muscles, body fat and carbohydrate metabolism, growth hormone, and the human female reproductive system. Additional new chapters summarize exciting research on stem cells and cancer, dietary restriction, and whether age related diseases are an integral part of aging. The Handbook of the Biology of Aging, Sixth Edition is part of the Handbooks on Aging series, including Handbook of the Psychology of Aging and Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, also in their 6th editions.

Hormones Brain And Behavior Five Volume Set

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080534155
Size: 80.37 MB
Format: PDF
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Hormones, Brain and Behavior, Third Edition offers a state-of-the-art overview of hormonally-mediated behaviors, including an extensive discussion of the effects of hormones on insects, fish, amphibians, birds, rodents, and humans. Entries have been carefully designed to provide a valuable source of information for students and researchers in neuroendocrinology and those working in related areas, such as biology, psychology, psychiatry, and neurology. This third edition has been substantially restructured to include both foundational information and recent developments in the field. Continuing the emphasis on interdisciplinary research and practical applications, the book includes articles aligned in five main subject sections, with new chapters included on genetic and genomic techniques and clinical investigations. This reference provides unique treatment of all major vertebrate and invertebrate model systems with excellent opportunities for relating behavior to molecular genetics. The topics cover an unusual breadth (from molecules to ecophysiology), ranging from basic science to clinical research, making this reference of interest to a broad range of scientists in a variety of fields. Key Features * Contributors from 16 different countries and more than 70 institutions * Unlike any other hormone reference on the market Hormones, Brain and Behavior addresses hormone effects in all major vertebrate and non-vertebrate models * A timely, current reference on an emerging field with each chapter providing an in-depth exploration of the topic * Discusses molecular aspects of hormone function, systems, development, and hormone-related diseases * Addresses hormone effects in both the developing and adult nervous system Topics include: * Mammalian and Non-mammalian Hormone-behavior Systems * Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Hormone Actions on Behavior * Development of Hormone-dependent Neuronal Systems * Hormone/Behavior Relations of Clinical Importance