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The Stopping And Ranges Of Ions In Matter

Author: J.F. Ziegler
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483100960
Size: 66.61 MB
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Hydrogen: Stopping Powers and Ranges in All Elements, Volume 3 of The Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter, provides a nearly complete presentation of absolute experimental energy loss data for hydrogen over the energy range 10 keV The book is comprised of seven parts that present various topics about stopping power theory. Part I provides an introductory discourse about the book. Part II reviews the stopping power theory, and Part III presents the status of experimental data. Part IV talks about fitting the high-energy region, while Part V deals with fitting at low energies. Part VI covers interpolation using two-parameter fitting, and Part VII discusses pathlength and projected range. The text will be of great interest to researchers whose work concerns the stopping and ranges of ions in matter.

Srim The Stopping And Range Of Ions In Matter

Author: James F. Ziegler
Publisher: Lulu.com
ISBN: 096542071X
Size: 69.87 MB
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"This is a textbook the gives the background of the stopping and range of ions in matter (www.SRIM.org). It is written to be the prime resource for those who use SRIM in scientific work."--Lulu.com.

Sputtering By Particle Bombardment

Author: Rainer Behrisch
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540445005
Size: 31.58 MB
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This book provides a long-needed survey of new results. Especially welcome is a new summary of the measured and calculated sputtering yields with an algebraic approximation formula for the energy and angular dependence of the yields, which is useful for researchers who need sputtering yields for physics research or applied problems. The book offers a critical review of computational methods for calculating sputtering yields and also includes molecular dynamics calculations.

Charged Particles In Oncology

Author: Marco Durante
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 288945391X
Size: 45.99 MB
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High-energy charged particles represent a cutting-edge technique in radiation oncology. Protons and carbon ions are used in several centers all over the world for the treatment of different solid tumors. Typical indications are ocular malignancies, tumors of the base of the skull, hepatocellular carcinomas and various sarcomas. The physical characteristics of the charged particles (Bragg peak) allow sparing of much more normal tissues than it is possible using conventional X-rays, and for this reason all pediatric tumors are considered eligible for protontherapy. Ions heavier than protons also display special radiobiological characteristics, which make them effective against radioresistant and hypoxic tumors. On the other hand, protons and ions with high charge (Z) and energy (HZE particles) represent a major risk for human space exploration. The main late effect of radiation exposure is cancer induction, and at the moment the dose limits for astronauts are based on cancer mortality risk. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) measured the dose on the route to Mars and on the planet’s surface, suggesting that a human exploration missions will exceed the radiation risk limits. Notwithstanding many studies on carcinogenesis induced by protons and heavy ions, the risk uncertainty remains very high. In this research topic we aim at gathering the experiences and opinions of scientists dealing with high-energy charged particles either for cancer treatment or for space radiation protection. Clinical results with protons and heavy ions, as well as research in medical physics and pre-clinical radiobiology are reported. In addition, ground-based and spaceflight studies on the effects of space radiation are included in this book. Particularly relevant for space studies are the clinical results on normal tissue complications and second cancers. The eBook nicely demonstrates that particle therapy in oncology and protection of astronauts from space radiation share many common topics, and can learn from each other.

Cosmic Rays For Particle And Astroparticle Physics

Author: S Giani
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814462403
Size: 73.41 MB
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The conference was aimed at promoting contacts between scientists involved in solar-terrestrial physics, space physics, astroparticle physics and cosmology both from the theoretical and the experimental approach. The conference was devoted to physics and physics requirements, survey of theoretical models and performances of detectors employed (or to be employed) in experiments for fundamental physics, astroparticle physics, astrophysics research and space environment — including Earth magnetosphere and heliosphere and solar-terrestrial physics. Furthermore, cosmic rays have been used to extend the scientific research experience to teachers and students with air shower arrays and other techniques. Presentations included the following subjects: advances in physics from present and next generation ground and space experiments, dark matter, double beta decay, high-energy astrophysics, space environment, trapped particles, propagation of cosmic rays in the Earth atmosphere, Heliosphere, Galaxy and broader impact activities in cosmic rays science. The open and flexible format of the Conference was conducive to fruitful exchanges of points of view among participants and permitted the evaluation of the progresses made and indicated future research directions. The participants were experienced researchers but also graduate students (MSc and PhD) and recent postdoctoral fellows. Errata(s) Nuclear and Non-Ionizing Energy-Loss for Coulomb Scattered Particles from Low Energy up to Relativistic Regime in Space Radiation Environment: Page 17 to Page 22 (245 KB) Contents:Broader Impacts Activites and Treatments:VHE Spectral Energy Distribution of Crab Nebula Compared with the Prediction of a Synchrotron Self-Compton Emission Model (V G Sinitsyna, A Y Alaverdian, A S Boldyrev, S S Borisov, R M Mirsafatikhov and V Y Sinitsyna)Nuclear and Non-Ionizing Energy-Loss for Coulomb Scattered Particles from Low Energy Up to Relativistic Regime in Space Radiation Environment (M J Boschini, C Consolandi, M Gervasi, S Giani, D Grandi, V Ivanchenko, S Pensotti, P G Rancoita and M Tacconi)Study of the Natural Radioactivity Influence on ARGO-YBJ Detector (I Bolognino, C Cattaneo, E Giroletti, G Liguori, P Salvini, P Vallania and C Vigorito)High-Accuracy Determination of Fabry-Perot Effective Mirror Spacing Used for the Receivers of Atmospheric Monitoring in VHE Gamma Ray Astronomy (S Maltezos, E Fokitis, N Maragos, V Gika, A Georgakopoulou, E Koubli and G Koutsourakis)AMS-02 Photon Data Reduction Approach (G Boella, M J Boschini, C Consolandi, S Della Torre, M Gervasi, D Grandi, E Memola, S Pensotti, P G Rancoita and M Tacconi)CZELTA: An Overview of the Czech Large-Area Time Coincidence Array (K Smolek, J Čermák, J Hubík, S Pospíšil, P Přidal, J Smejkal, I Štekl, F Blaschke, P Lichard and V Vícha)Calibration of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter with First LHC Data (V Sola)On the Detectability of Cosmic Ray Electron Spectral Features in the Microwave/mm-Wave Range (A Tartari, M Gervasi, G Sironi, M Zannoni and S Spinelli)Science in the Schools — the Extreme Energy Events Project (M Abbrescia, R Antolini, R Baldini Ferroli, G Bencivenni, E Bressan, A Chiavassa, C Cical, L Cifarelli, F Coccetti, D De Gruttola, S DePasquale, M DIncecco, F L Fabbri, V Frolov, M Garbini, C Gustavino, D Hatzifotiadou, P La Rocca, F Librizzi, A Maggiora, H Menghetti, S Miozzi, R Moro, M Panareo, G Piragino, F Riggi, F Romano, G Sartorelli, E Scapparone, M Selvi, S Serci, E Siddi, M C S Williams, A Zichichi and R Zuyeuski)A Cosmic Ray Detector Array for Schools in the Cambridge Region (S A Wotton, M J Goodrick, B Hommels and M A Parker)Observation of Electroscalar Radiation During a Solar Eclipse (O A Zaymidoroga and D V Podgainy)Young Researchers Focus on the Extreme Energy Universe (James L Pinfold)Cosmic Rays Experimental Observations and Searches:Galactic Cosmic Ray Production in Tycho's SNR and Geminga (V G Sinitsyna, A Y Alaverdian, S S Borisov, S I Nikolsky and V Y Sinitsyna)The CUORICINO and CUORE Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments (T I Banks)Results from DAMA/LIBRA (R Bernabei, P Belli, F Montecchia, F Nozzoli, F Cappella, A d'Angelo, A Incicchitti, D Prosperiy, R Cerulli, C J Dai, H L He, X H Ma, X D Sheng, Z P Yez and R G Wang)Recent Results from the Fermi Large Area Space Telescope (Emanuele Bonamente)Gamma-Ray Activity of Cygnus X-3 at Energy Range of 1-100 TeV During 15 Year Observations of SHALON (V G Sinitsyna, A Y Alaverdian, S S Borisov, S I Nikolsky and V Y Sinitsyna)Signatures of Middle Aged, Nearby Pulsars in the Cosmic Ray Lepton Spectrum? (I Büsching and Okker C deJager)Highlights from the ARGO-YBJ Experiment (P Camarri)Status of MAGIC and Recent Results (A de Angelis and V Scalzotto)Recent HESS Results (B Degrange)Atmospheric Evaluation with LIDAR for MAGIC (C Fruck, J Hose, R Mirzoyan and M Teshima)The AMS-02 Silicon Tracker (S Haino)From the Knee to the Ankle: From Galactic to Extragalactic Origin of Cosmic Rays? (Andreas Haungs)High Energy Cosmic-Ray Photons and Helium (Stanislav Borisov, Sergey Voronov, Arkady Galper and Alexander Karelin)Status of UHE CR Orbital Fluorescence Detector TUS (P Klimov, G Garipov, B Khrenov, N Kalmykov, V Morozenko, M Panasyuk, S Sharakin, A Shirokov, I Yashin, S Biktemerova, A Grinyuk, D Naumov, L Tkachev, A Tkachenko, O Saprykin, I Park, J Lee, G Na, O Martinez and H Salazar)The Observation of the Light Component Spectrum in the 5–250 TeV Region by the ARGO-YBJ Experiment (S M Mari and P Montini)Status and Plans of the LUCIFER Experiment (F Orio)In-Flight Measurement of the Aabsolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (M Pesce-Rollins)The Synergy between Astroparticle and Collider Physics in the Search for Dark Matter (James L Pinfold)PICASSO: Search for Dark Matter in the Spin-Dependent Sector (M-C Piro)Recent Results from VERITAS (John Quinn)Recent Results from the PAMELA Experiment (S B Ricciarini)First Results of LHCF; Very Forward Particles at LHC Collision (T Sako)Status and Recent Results from the CREAM Experiment (E S Seo, H S Ahn, P Bhoyar, J Eaton, O Ganel, J H Han, A Haque, K C Kim, M H Kim, M H Lee, S E Lee, L Lutz, A Malinin, O Ofoha, S S Ryu, B P Smith, A Vartanyan, P Walpole, J Wu, J H Yoo, Y S Yoon, T Anderson, N B Conklin, S Coutu, M Geske, S I Mognet, L Barbier, J T Link, J W Mitchell, A Barrau, M Bunerd, B Coste, L Derome, M Mangin-Brinet, A Putze, Y Sallaz-Damaz, R Bazer-Bachi, J J Beatty, T J Brandt, G Bigongiari, P Maestro and R Zei)On the Possibility of Registering UHE EAS Cherenkov Light by the TUS Detector (O P Shustova, N N Kalmykov and B A Khrenov)TeV Gamma-Rays from NGC 1275 Detected in 15 Year Observation of SHALON Telescope (V G Sinitsyna, S I Nikolsky and V Y Sinitsyna)Constraints on Extragalactic Background Light from Distant Quasars 3C454.3 (z = 0.859 and 1739+522 (z = 1.375) Detected by SHALON (V G Sinitsyna, S I Nikolsky and V Y Sinitsyna)Status of the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma Ray Observatory (Wayne Springer)Light Nuclei and Isotope Abundances in Cosmic Rays. Results from AMS-01 (N Tomassetti)Cosmic Rays Propagation and Environment:The AMS-02 Proton Spectra and the Geomagnetic Field (P Bobik, M J Boschini, C Consolandi, S Della Torre, M Gervasi, D Grandi, K Kudela, S Pensotti and P G Rancoita)Stereo Observations of the Energetic Heavy Ions During the Minimum of Solar Cycle 23 (R Bučík, U Mall, A Korth and G M Mason)Electron and Positron Solar Modulation and Prediction for AMS02 (P Bobik, M J Boschini, C Consolandi, S Della Torre, M Gervasi, D Grandi, K Kudela, S Pensotti and P G Rancoita)How to Use Molecular Clouds to Study the Propagation of Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy (S Gabici)Proton Modulation in the Heliosphere for Different Solar Conditions and Prediction for AMS-02 (P Bobik, G Boella, M J Boschini, C Consolandi, S Della Torre, M Gervasi, D Grandi, K Kudela, E Memola, S Pensotti, P G Rancoita and M Tacconi)Proton and Antiproton Modulation in the Heliosphere for Different Solar Conditions and AMS-02 Measurements Prediction (P Bobik, M J Boschini, C Consolandi, S Della Torre, M Gervasi, D Grandi, K Kudela, S Pensotti and P G Rancoita)A Consistent Interpretation of Recent CR Nuclei and Electron Spectra (Giuseppe Di Bernardo, Carmelo Evoli, Daniele Gaggero, Dario Grasso, Luca Maccione and Mario Nicola Mazziotta)Cosmic Rays for Heliospheric Space Weather Storm Prediction (Frank Jansen and Jörg Behrens)Energetic Particles in the Magnetosphere of Earth: Selected Results and Problems (Karel Kudela, Leonid L Lazutin and Yuri I Logachev)Cosmic Rays of Leptons from Pulsars and Supernova Remnants (Roberto A Lineros)High Energy Phenomena in the Low Atmosphere; Particle Fluxes from Thunderstorm Clouds (Ashot Chilingarian and Bagrat Mailyan)The Cosmic-Ray Populations of Nearby Galaxies (P Martin)USINE: A New Public Cosmic Ray Propagation Code (Basic Phenomenology, Sample Results, and a Bit of USINE) (D Maurin)Propagation of Galactic Cosmic Rays and the AMS-02 Experiment (Miguel Pato, Dan Hooper and Melanie Simet)Galactic Cosmic Rays in the Dynamic Heliosphere (Marius Potgieter, Stefan Ferreira and Du Toit Strauss)A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Technique to Sample Transport and Source Parameters of Galactic Cosmic Rays (A Putze, L Derome, F Donato and D Maurin)PAMELA Through a Magnetic Lens (J P Roberts)Analysis of Possibility of Cosmic Rays Proton Anisotropy Phase and Amplitude and Electron Spectra Description at TeV-Region within the Bounds of the Same Set of Sources (Olga Strelnikova, Vladimir Ptuskin and Lyubov Sveshnikova)Interstellar Gamma Rays and Cosmic Rays: New Insights from FERMI-LAT and Integral (A W Strong)Energy Loss for Electrons in the Heliosphere and Local Interstellar Spectrum for Solar Modulation (P Bobik, G Boella, M J Boschini, C Consolandi, S Della Torre, M Gervasi, D Grandi, M Elmo, K Kudela, E Memola, S Pensotti, P G Rancoita, D Rozza and M Tacconi)Cosmic Rays from Astrophysical Sources:Cosmic Ray Acceleration in Supernova Remnants (P Blasi)γ-Rays from Heavy Nuclei Accelerated in Supernova Remnants (D Caprioli, P Blasi and E Amato)Anisotropies in the Cosmic-Ray Electron Spectrum: A Way to Discriminate between Exotic and Astrophysical Sources? (I Cernuda)Cosmic-Ray Electrons and Positrons from Gamma-Ray Pulsars (M Dormody)Galactic Electrons and Positrons at the Earth: New Estimate of the Primary and Secondary Fluxes (J Lavalle)The 'PAMELA Anomaly' Indicates a Nearby Cosmic Ray Accelerator (P Mertsch and S Sarkar)Observations of Intermediate Synchrotron Peaked Blazars with the Fermi-LAT (C Monte)Shock Acceleration in Partially Neutral Plasmas (G Morlino, E Amato, P Blasi and D Caprioli)Pulsar Electrons Detection in AMS-02 Experiment. Model Status and Discovery Potential (Jonathan Pochon)The CR Connection: UHE Primaries and Secondaries from UHECR Sources (A M Taylor)η Carinae: A Very Large Hadron Collider (R Walter, C Farnier & J-C Leyder)Cosmic Rays from Exotic Sources:Gamma Rays from Dark Matter (T Bringmann)Introducing CLUMPY: A Public Code for Gamma-Ray Emission from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Galaxy (C Combet, A Charbonnier and D Maurin)Cosmic Rays and Dark Matter Indirect Detection (Timur Delahaye)Neutrinos from Dark Matter (M H Reno)Charged Cosmic Rays from Dark Matter (P Salati)Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Signatures of Unstable Dark Matter (David Tran)Gamma-Ray Anisotropies from Decaying Dark Matter (C Weniger) Readership: Postgraduate students, researchers and engineers. Keywords:Astroparticle;Particle;Space Physics;Cosmic Ray Physics;Heliosphere;Dark Matter;Double-Beta DecayKey Features:Complete review of the fieldUp-to-date results and informationBroad vision for the future in the field, indication of future research direction

Atomic And Nuclear Analytical Methods

Author: Hem Raj Verma
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540302794
Size: 49.74 MB
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This book compares and offers a comprehensive overview of nine analytical techniques important in material science and many other branches of science. All these methods are already well adapted to applications in diverse fields such as medical, environmental studies, archaeology, and materials science. This clearly presented reference describes and compares the principles of the methods and the various source and detector types.

Radioactive Ion Implantation Of Thermoplastic Elastomers

Author: Veronica Borcea
Publisher: Presses univ. de Louvain
ISBN: 9782874631276
Size: 57.29 MB
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The radioactive ion implantation wear measuring method (RII) has been used for many years as a tool to make highly sensitive real-time in-situ measurements of wear and corrosion in metallic or ceramic materials. The method consists of the controlled implantation of radioactive ions of limited decay time in a thin layer at the surface of the material. The progressive abrasion of the material results in a decline in radioactivity which is followed to monitor material losses. The application of RII to control the wear of polymers is potentially of interest, but it has been lagging behind because of uncertainties related to possible changes in material properties during and after the implantation, and to the exact shape of implantation profiles. In this thesis, we investigate these issues on two thermoplastic elastomers, among which one contains radiation-sensitive unsaturated bonds, using as ions 7Be, 7Li and Kr. The results of the sample characterisation indicate that the 7Be and 7Li implantations, under properly-selected conditions, do not induce significant modifications in the materials. The implantation of a stack of polymer thin films and the activity measurements performed to determine the implantation profile are also presented. The experimental results on the ion implantation profiles and the determination of calibration curves are presented and discussed in comparison with simulated results. The results indicate that it is possible to predict the implantation profile by means of simulations. This bodes well for the application of the RII method to polymer materials. An experimental study is presented regarding the possible redistribution of the implanted 7Be after implantation. Since very few existing experimental techniques are able to detect light elements implanted in polymer targets at fluences less or equal to 1012 cm-2, with implantation depths of a few μm, a new method is presented, which implies the use of plasma etching techniques in order to remove layers of polymers and measuring the remaining activity after each step. Our results indicate that a redistribution of the implanted ions takes place during the implantation process, resulting in a scrambling of the initial implantation profile. Nevertheless, provided a suitable methodology be used, wear measurements in polymers by using the RII method are still possible, as we propose in the thesis.

Surface Analysis Methods In Materials Science

Author: John O'Connor
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540413301
Size: 20.54 MB
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This comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the use of surface analysis methods in materials science consists of three parts: an extensive introduction to the concepts of surface structure and composition, a techniques section describing fourteen surface methods and a separate section on applications. Each chapter is written by a specialist in the field. The surface methods described include SAM, XPS, SIMS and other ion beam methods, LEED/RHEED, RBS and NRA, FTIR, SEM, STM, UPS and magnetic methods. Among the areas of application discussed are adsorption, catalysis, coated steel surfaces, inorganic surfaces, semiconductor devices, thin film solar cells and high temperature oxidation. This detailed exposition will enable researchers to select and exploit the appropriate surface method for a given application. (Midwest).