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The Stopping And Ranges Of Ions In Matter

Author: J.F. Ziegler
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483100960
Size: 67.11 MB
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Hydrogen: Stopping Powers and Ranges in All Elements, Volume 3 of The Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter, provides a nearly complete presentation of absolute experimental energy loss data for hydrogen over the energy range 10 keV The book is comprised of seven parts that present various topics about stopping power theory. Part I provides an introductory discourse about the book. Part II reviews the stopping power theory, and Part III presents the status of experimental data. Part IV talks about fitting the high-energy region, while Part V deals with fitting at low energies. Part VI covers interpolation using two-parameter fitting, and Part VII discusses pathlength and projected range. The text will be of great interest to researchers whose work concerns the stopping and ranges of ions in matter.

Srim The Stopping And Range Of Ions In Matter

Author: James F. Ziegler
Publisher: Lulu.com
ISBN: 096542071X
Size: 11.99 MB
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"This is a textbook the gives the background of the stopping and range of ions in matter (www.SRIM.org). It is written to be the prime resource for those who use SRIM in scientific work."--Lulu.com.

Sputtering By Particle Bombardment

Author: Rainer Behrisch
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540445005
Size: 71.11 MB
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This book provides a long-needed survey of new results. Especially welcome is a new summary of the measured and calculated sputtering yields with an algebraic approximation formula for the energy and angular dependence of the yields, which is useful for researchers who need sputtering yields for physics research or applied problems. The book offers a critical review of computational methods for calculating sputtering yields and also includes molecular dynamics calculations.

Charged Particles In Oncology

Author: Marco Durante
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 288945391X
Size: 33.64 MB
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High-energy charged particles represent a cutting-edge technique in radiation oncology. Protons and carbon ions are used in several centers all over the world for the treatment of different solid tumors. Typical indications are ocular malignancies, tumors of the base of the skull, hepatocellular carcinomas and various sarcomas. The physical characteristics of the charged particles (Bragg peak) allow sparing of much more normal tissues than it is possible using conventional X-rays, and for this reason all pediatric tumors are considered eligible for protontherapy. Ions heavier than protons also display special radiobiological characteristics, which make them effective against radioresistant and hypoxic tumors. On the other hand, protons and ions with high charge (Z) and energy (HZE particles) represent a major risk for human space exploration. The main late effect of radiation exposure is cancer induction, and at the moment the dose limits for astronauts are based on cancer mortality risk. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) measured the dose on the route to Mars and on the planet’s surface, suggesting that a human exploration missions will exceed the radiation risk limits. Notwithstanding many studies on carcinogenesis induced by protons and heavy ions, the risk uncertainty remains very high. In this research topic we aim at gathering the experiences and opinions of scientists dealing with high-energy charged particles either for cancer treatment or for space radiation protection. Clinical results with protons and heavy ions, as well as research in medical physics and pre-clinical radiobiology are reported. In addition, ground-based and spaceflight studies on the effects of space radiation are included in this book. Particularly relevant for space studies are the clinical results on normal tissue complications and second cancers. The eBook nicely demonstrates that particle therapy in oncology and protection of astronauts from space radiation share many common topics, and can learn from each other.

Treatise On Heavy Ion Science

Author: D.A. Bromley
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461581036
Size: 38.16 MB
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For 75 years the stopping of energetic ions in matter has been a subject of great theoretical and experimental interest. The theoretical treatment of the stopping of ions in matter is largely due to the work of Bohr, 1-3 Bethe,4-6 Bloch,7. s and Lindhard,9-12 and it has been reviewed by Bohr,3 Fano,13 17 20 Jackson,14 Sigmund,15 Ahlen,16 and Ziegler et al. - Soon after the discovery of energetic particle emission from radioactive materials, there was interest in how these corpuscles were slowed down in traversing matter. In 1900, Marie Curie stated 21 the hypothesis that Hies rayons alpha sont des projectiles materiels susceptibles de perdre de leur vitesse en travers ant la matiere." Early attempts to evaluate this were incon clusive for there was not yet an accurate proposed model of the atom. Enough experimental evidence was collected in the next decade to make stopping power theory one of the central concerns of those attempting to develop an atomic model. J.J. Thomson, director of the prestigious Cavendish Laboratory, and Niels Bohr, a fresh postdoctoral scientist at Rutherford's Manchester Laboratory, both published almost simultaneously22. 23 an analysis of the stopping of charged particles by matter, and each contained many of their divergent ideas on the model of an atom. Thomson ignored in his paper the Rutherford alpha-particle scattering 24 experiment of a year before. But the nuclear atom with a heavy positively 25 charged core was the basis of Bohr's ideas.

Fluorescent Nanodiamonds

Author: Huan-Cheng Chang
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119477107
Size: 21.38 MB
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The most comprehensive reference on fluorescent nanodiamond physical and chemical properties and contemporary applications Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) have drawn a great deal of attention over the past several years, and their applications and development potential are proving to be manifold and vast. The first and only book of its kind, Fluorescent Nanodiamonds is a comprehensive guide to the basic science and technical information needed to fully understand the fundamentals of FNDs and their potential applications across an array of domains. In demonstrating the importance of FNDs in biological applications, the authors bring together all relevant chemistry, physics, materials science and biology. Nanodiamonds are produced by powerful cataclysmic events such as explosions, volcanic eruptions and meteorite impacts. They also can be created in the lab by high-pressure high-temperature treatment of graphite or detonating an explosive in a reactor vessel. A single imperfection can give a nanodiamond a specific, isolated color center which allows it to function as a single, trapped atom. Much smaller than the thickness of a human hair, a nanodiamond can have a huge surface area that allows it to bond with a variety of other materials. Because of their non-toxicity, nanodiamonds may be useful in biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and gene therapy. The most comprehensive reference on a topic of rapidly increasing interest among academic and industrial researchers across an array of fields Includes numerous case studies and practical examples from many areas of research and industrial applications, as well as fascinating and instructive historical perspectives Each chapter addresses, in-depth, a single integral topic including the fundamental properties, synthesis, mechanisms and functionalisation of FNDs The first book published by the key patent holder with his research group in the field of FNDs Fluorescent Nanodiamonds is an important working resource for a broad range of scientists and engineers in industry and academia. It will also be a welcome reference for instructors in chemistry, physics, materials science, biology and related fields.

Surface Analysis Methods In Materials Science

Author: John O'Connor
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540413301
Size: 64.36 MB
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This comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the use of surface analysis methods in materials science consists of three parts: an extensive introduction to the concepts of surface structure and composition, a techniques section describing fourteen surface methods and a separate section on applications. Each chapter is written by a specialist in the field. The surface methods described include SAM, XPS, SIMS and other ion beam methods, LEED/RHEED, RBS and NRA, FTIR, SEM, STM, UPS and magnetic methods. Among the areas of application discussed are adsorption, catalysis, coated steel surfaces, inorganic surfaces, semiconductor devices, thin film solar cells and high temperature oxidation. This detailed exposition will enable researchers to select and exploit the appropriate surface method for a given application. (Midwest).

Halbleiter Leistungsbauelemente

Author: Josef Lutz
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 364229796X
Size: 50.77 MB
Format: PDF
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Halbleiter-Leistungsbauelemente sind das Kernstück der Leistungselektronik. Sie bestimmen die Leistungsfähigkeit und machen neuartige und verlustarme Schaltungen erst möglich. In dem Band wird neben den Halbleiter-Leistungsbauelementen selbst auch die Aufbau- und Verbindungstechnik behandelt: von den physikalischen Grundlagen und der Herstellungstechnologie über einzelne Bauelemente bis zu thermomechanischen Problemen, Zerstörungsmechanismen und Störungseffekten. Die 2., überarbeitete Auflage berücksichtigt technische Neuerungen und Entwicklungen.

Radioactive Ion Implantation Of Thermoplastic Elastomers

Author: Veronica Borcea
Publisher: Presses univ. de Louvain
ISBN: 9782874631276
Size: 21.46 MB
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The radioactive ion implantation wear measuring method (RII) has been used for many years as a tool to make highly sensitive real-time in-situ measurements of wear and corrosion in metallic or ceramic materials. The method consists of the controlled implantation of radioactive ions of limited decay time in a thin layer at the surface of the material. The progressive abrasion of the material results in a decline in radioactivity which is followed to monitor material losses. The application of RII to control the wear of polymers is potentially of interest, but it has been lagging behind because of uncertainties related to possible changes in material properties during and after the implantation, and to the exact shape of implantation profiles. In this thesis, we investigate these issues on two thermoplastic elastomers, among which one contains radiation-sensitive unsaturated bonds, using as ions 7Be, 7Li and Kr. The results of the sample characterisation indicate that the 7Be and 7Li implantations, under properly-selected conditions, do not induce significant modifications in the materials. The implantation of a stack of polymer thin films and the activity measurements performed to determine the implantation profile are also presented. The experimental results on the ion implantation profiles and the determination of calibration curves are presented and discussed in comparison with simulated results. The results indicate that it is possible to predict the implantation profile by means of simulations. This bodes well for the application of the RII method to polymer materials. An experimental study is presented regarding the possible redistribution of the implanted 7Be after implantation. Since very few existing experimental techniques are able to detect light elements implanted in polymer targets at fluences less or equal to 1012 cm-2, with implantation depths of a few μm, a new method is presented, which implies the use of plasma etching techniques in order to remove layers of polymers and measuring the remaining activity after each step. Our results indicate that a redistribution of the implanted ions takes place during the implantation process, resulting in a scrambling of the initial implantation profile. Nevertheless, provided a suitable methodology be used, wear measurements in polymers by using the RII method are still possible, as we propose in the thesis.

Atomic And Nuclear Analytical Methods

Author: Hem Raj Verma
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540302794
Size: 55.68 MB
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This book compares and offers a comprehensive overview of nine analytical techniques important in material science and many other branches of science. All these methods are already well adapted to applications in diverse fields such as medical, environmental studies, archaeology, and materials science. This clearly presented reference describes and compares the principles of the methods and the various source and detector types.