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The United Nations Secretariat And The Use Of Force In A Unipolar World

Author: Ralph Zacklin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139484222
Size: 15.42 MB
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The end of the Cold War appeared to revitalise the Security Council and offered the prospect of restoring the United Nations to its central role in the maintenance of international peace and security. Between the Gulf War of 1990 and the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the UN Secretariat found itself in the midst of an unprecedented period of activity involving authorised and unauthorised actions leading to the use of force. In this 2010 book Ralph Zacklin examines the tensions that developed between the Secretariat and member states, particularly the five permanent members of the Security Council, concerning the process and content of the Council's actions in the Gulf War, Bosnia, Kosovo and the Iraq War as the Secretariat strove to give effect to the fundamental principles of the Charter.

Reappraising The Resort To Force

Author: Lindsay Moir
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847315577
Size: 59.40 MB
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A number of commentators assert that the military response to the terrorist atrocities of 11 September 2001 - encompassing attacks on Afghanistan and Iraq, and commonly referred to as the 'war on terror' - has significantly impacted upon the international law regulating resort to armed force by states (jus ad bellum), loosening the constraints on self-defence. Some even suggest that the very future of the United Nations, in particular the Security Council and its collective security system, is at risk - at least in its current form. This book does not address the question of the future of the United Nations, an issue probably best left to scholars of international relations. Instead, it seeks to place the 'war on terror' within the context of international law, assessing how, or whether, it can be accommodated within the existing legal framework limiting the use of force. Through an examination of the lawfulness (or otherwise) of both Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, including the legal justifications advanced by those states involved and the reaction of the international community, and involving a detailed discussion of the most important developments (ie, the permissibility of self-defence against non-state, terrorist, actors and the 'Bush doctrine' of pre-emptive self-defence against terrorists as proclaimed in the 2002 US National Security Strategy) the book determines whether, and to what extent, the right to use force - or the acceptability of such military action - is currently undergoing a radical transformation. By assessing subsequent developments illustrating the impact that military action against Afghanistan and Iraq has had on the jus ad bellum, this book represents a distinctive and original contribution to the academic literature.

Iraq And The Use Of Force In International Law

Author: Marc Weller
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199595305
Size: 44.59 MB
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One million people in the UK alone demonstrated against the 2003 invasion of Iraq. A crucial element of the opposition to the war was the lack of a clear legal basis. This is the first book to analyze the lawfulness of the use of force against Iraq on the basis of formerly classified material made public by the official UK inquiry into the war.

The Oxford Handbook Of The Use Of Force In International Law

Author: Marc Weller
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191653918
Size: 45.29 MB
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The prohibition of the use of force in international law is one of the major achievements of international law in the past century. The attempt to outlaw war as a means of national policy and to establish a system of collective security after both World Wars resulted in the creation of the United Nations Charter, which remains a principal point of reference for the law on the use of force to this day. There have, however, been considerable challenges to the law on the prohibition of the use of force over the past two decades. This Oxford Handbook is a comprehensive and authoritative study of the modern law on the use of force. Over seventy experts in the field offer a detailed analysis, and to an extent a restatement, of the law in this area. The Handbook reviews the status of the law on the use of force, and assesses what changes, if any, have occurred in consequence to recent developments. It offers cutting-edge and up-to-date scholarship on all major aspects of the prohibition of the use of force. The work is set in context by an extensive introductory section, reviewing the history of the subject, recent challenges, and addressing major conceptual approaches. Its second part addresses collective security, in particular the law and practice of the United Nations organs, and of regional organizations and arrangements. It then considers the substance of the prohibition of the use of force, and of the right to self-defence and associated doctrines. The next section is devoted to armed action undertaken on behalf of peoples and populations. This includes self-determination conflicts, resistance to armed occupation, and forcible humanitarian and pro-democratic action. The possibility of the revival of classical, expansive justifications for the use of force is then addressed. This is matched by a final section considering new security challenges and the emerging law in relation to them. Finally, the key arguments developed in the book are tied together in a substantive conclusion. The Handbook will be essential reading for scholars and students of international law and the use of force, and legal advisers to both government and NGOs.

Sovereignty The Wto And Changing Fundamentals Of International Law

Author: John H. Jackson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139452738
Size: 14.56 MB
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The last decade of the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century has been one of the most challenging periods for the generally accepted assumptions of international law. This book, first published in 2006, grapples with these long-held assumptions (such as the consent basis of international law norms, equality of nations, restrictive or text-based treaty interpretations and applications, the monopoly of internal national power, and non-interference), and how they are being fundamentally altered by the forces of globalization. It also examines the challenges facing the WTO as a component of international economic law, and how that field is inextricably linked to general international law.

Questions Of Jurisdiction And Admissibility Before International Courts

Author: Yuval Shany
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316489728
Size: 16.76 MB
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This examination of the jurisdiction of international courts and the admissibility of cases before them analyses jurisdictional and admissibility rules in light of the roles assumed by international courts in international life and in light of the roles that jurisdictional and admissibility rules play in promoting the effectiveness and legitimacy of international courts. The theory pursued views jurisdiction as a form of delegation of power (the power to exercise judicial power and decide the law) and regards admissibility as a framework for deciding upon the propriety of exercising such power. On the basis of this theoretical framework, the author critically evaluates the exercise of judicial discretion in the existing case law of a variety of international courts, distinguishing between the category-based case selection implicit in jurisdictional rules and the case-by-case analysis and selection implicit in rules on admissibility.

The Doctrines Of Us Security Policy

Author: Heiko Meiertöns
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139489135
Size: 42.71 MB
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The practise of outlining principles for the conduct of US security policy in so-called doctrines is a characteristic feature of US foreign policy. From an international lawyer's point of view two aspects of these doctrines are of particular interest. First, to what degree are the criteria for the use of force, as laid down in these doctrines, consistent with the limitations for the use of force in international law? Second, which law-creating effects do these doctrines have? Furthermore, the legal nature of these doctrines remains uncertain. These matters are examined, beginning with the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 and taking into account the Stimson Doctrine of 1932, the doctrines of the Cold-War period and the Bush Doctrine of 2002. The Bush Doctrine in particular has generated controversies concerning its compatibility with Article 51 of the UN Charter, due to its principle of preventive self-defence.

European Yearbook Of International Economic Law 2015

Author: Christoph Herrmann
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662467488
Size: 71.92 MB
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This sixth volume (2015) of the European Yearbook of International Economic Law puts a particular emphasis on non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to trade and the world trade order. With the steady reduction of tariff rates since the GATT 47 came into force, focus in recent years has been on the vast and complex landscape of non-tariff barriers to trade. States as well as scholars seemingly struggle with the multitude of measures pooled under this expression as there is no single, acknowledged definition of the term, and its relation to the term “non-tariff measures” remains equally blurred. Particularly in practice and on a multilateral level, there appears to be some awkwardness when it comes to coping with NTBs since multilateral trade rules seem to be in conflict with national regulatory autonomy in the pursuit of policy objectives. In part one, this volume sheds light on the problems of non-tariff barriers to trade that arise in various fields. Part two focuses on regional integration with an emphasis on relations between East Asia and the European Union. In this regard, the authors outline the trade and investment relations between the European Union and East Asia, including Japan, Korea and Singapore. Part three offers an overview of recent institutional developments in WIPO, ICSID, WTO and WTO jurisprudence. Part four includes book reviews of recent works in the field of international economic law, and part five introduces a new section on publications in the field of international economic law that were released in 2013 and 2014.

International Organization In The Anarchical Society

Author: Tonny Brems Knudsen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319716220
Size: 76.36 MB
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This book takes up one of the key theoretical challenges in the English School’s conceptual framework, namely the nature of the institutions of international society. It theorizes their nature through an analysis of the relationship of primary and secondary levels of institutional formation, so far largely ignored in English School theorizing, and provides case studies to illuminate the theory. Hitherto, the School has largely failed to study secondary institutions such as international organizations and regimes as autonomous objects of analysis, seeing them as mere materializations of primary institutions. Building on legal and constructivist arguments about the constitutive character of institutions, it demonstrates how primary institutions frame secondary organizations and regimes, but also how secondary institutions construct agencies with capacities that impinge upon and can change primary institutions. Based on legal and constructivist ideas, it develops a theoretical model that sees primary and secondary institutions as shared understandings enmeshed in observable historical processes of constitution, reproduction and regulation.

The Crime Of Conspiracy In International Criminal Law

Author: Juliet Okoth
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9462650179
Size: 80.74 MB
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This book looks at the relevance of conspiracy in international criminal law. It establishes that conspiracy was introduced into international criminal law for purposes of prevention and to combat the collective nature of participation in commission of international crimes. Its use as a tool of accountability has, however, been affected by conflicting conceptual perceptions of conspiracy from common law and civil law countries. This conflict is displayed in the decisions on conspiracy by the international criminal tribunals, and finally culminates into the exclusion of punishment of conspiracy in the Rome Statute. It is questionable whether this latest development on the law of conspiracy was a prudent decision. While the function of conspiracy as a mode of liability is satisfactorily covered by the modes of participation in the Rome Statute, its function as a purely inchoate crime used to punish incomplete crimes is missing. This book creates a case for inclusion in the Rome Statute, punishment of conspiracies involving international crimes that do not extend beyond the conceptual stage, to reinforce the Statute’s purpose of prevention. The conspiracy concept proposed is one that reflects the characteristics acceptable under both common law and civil law systems.