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Surfing The Quantum World

Author: Frank S. Levin
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198808275
Size: 24.32 MB
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The ideas and phenomena of the quantum world are strikingly unlike those encountered in our visual world. Surfing the Quantum World shows why and how this is so. It does this via a historical review and a gentle introduction to the fundamental principles of quantum theory, whose core concepts and symbolic representations are used to explain not only "ordinary" microscopic phenomena like the properties of the hydrogen atom and the structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements, but also a variety of mind-bending phenomena. Readers will learn that particles such as electrons and photons can behave like waves, allowing them to be in two places simultaneously, why white dwarf and neutron stars are gigantic quantum objects, how the maximum height of mountains has a quantum basis, and why quantum objects can tunnel through seemingly impenetrable barriers. Included among the various interpretational issues addressed is whether Schrodinger's cat is ever both dead and alive.

From The Universe To The Elementary Particles

Author: Ulrich Ellwanger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642243746
Size: 67.34 MB
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In this book, the author leads the reader, step by step and without any advanced mathematics, to a clear understanding of the foundations of modern elementary particle physics and cosmology. He also addresses current and controversial questions on topics such as string theory. The book contains gentle introductions to the theories of special and general relativity, and also classical and quantum field theory. The essential aspects of these concepts are understood with the help of simple calculations; for example, the force of gravity as a consequence of the curvature of the space-time. Also treated are the Big Bang, dark matter and dark energy, as well as the presently known interactions of elementary particles: electrodynamics, the strong and the weak interactions including the Higgs boson. Finally, the book sketches as yet speculative theories: Grand Unification theories, supersymmetry, string theory and the idea of additional dimensions of space-time. Since no higher mathematical or physics expertise is required, the book is also suitable for college and university students at the beginning of their studies. Hobby astronomers and other science enthusiasts seeking a deeper insight than can be found in popular treatments will also appreciate this unique book.

Photochemistry And Photophysics Of Coordination Compounds Ii

Author: Vincenzo Balzani
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540733493
Size: 61.52 MB
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Photochemistry (a term that broadly speaking includes photophysics) is abranchofmodernsciencethatdealswiththeinteractionoflightwithmatter and lies at the crossroadsof chemistry, physics, and biology. However, before being a branch of modern science, photochemistry was (and still is today), an extremely important natural phenomenon. When God said: “Let there be light”, photochemistry began to operate, helping God to create the world as wenowknowit.Itislikelythatphotochemistrywasthesparkfortheoriginof life on Earth and played a fundamental role in the evolution of life. Through the photosynthetic process that takes place in green plants, photochemistry is responsible for the maintenance of all living organisms. In the geological past photochemistry caused the accumulation of the deposits of coal, oil, and naturalgasthat wenowuseasfuels.Photochemistryisinvolved inthecontrol ofozoneinthestratosphereandinagreatnumber ofenvironmentalprocesses thatoccurintheatmosphere,inthesea,andonthesoil.Photochemistryisthe essenceoftheprocessofvisionandcausesavarietyofbehavioralresponsesin living organisms. Photochemistry as a science is quite young; we only need to go back less than one century to ?nd its early pioneer [1]. The concept of coordination compound is also relatively young; it was established in 1892, when Alfred Werner conceived his theory of metal complexes [2]. Since then, the terms coordination compound and metal complex have been used as synonyms, even if in the last 30 years, coordination chemistry has extended its scope to the binding ofall kinds of substrates [3, 4].

Ultraviolet And Soft X Ray Free Electron Lasers

Author: Peter Schmüser
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540795723
Size: 11.84 MB
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The high scienti?c interest in coherent X-ray light sources has stimulated world-wide e?orts in developing X-ray lasers. In this book a particularly promising approach is described, the free-electron laser (FEL), which is p- sued worldwide and holds the promise to deliver ultra-bright X-ray pulses of femtosecond duration. Other types of X-ray lasers are not discussed nor do we try a comparison of the relative virtues and drawbacks of di?erent concepts. The book has an introductory character and is written in the style of a universitytextbookforthemanynewcomerstothe?eldoffree-electronlasers, graduate students as well as accelerator physicists, engineers and technicians; it is not intended to be a scienti?c monograph for the experts in the ?eld. Building on lectures by one of us (J. R.) at the CERN Accelerator School, and motivated by the positive response to a series of seminars on “FEL t- ory for pedestrians”, given by P. S. within the framework of the Academic Training Program at DESY, we have aimed at presenting the theory of the low-gainandthehigh-gainFELinaclearandconcisemathematicallanguage. Particular emphasis is put on explaining and justifying the assumptions and approximations that are needed to obtain the di?erential equations descr- ing the FEL dynamics. Although we have tried our best to be “simple”, the mathematical derivations are certainly not always as simple as one would like them to be. However, we are not aware of any easier approach to the FEL theory. Some of the more involved calculations are put into the appendices.

Handbook Of Neurochemistry

Author: Abel Lajtha
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461571723
Size: 57.92 MB
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Anyone who has any contact with mental patients, old or young, or their families, or just visits a mental hospital or school for the retarded, is aware of the tremendous suffering caused by malfunctioning of the brain. The func tion of no other organ is so crucial for our everyday life, our proper func tioning, indeed our happiness, and no other illness causes as much anguish to patients or their families as mental illness. It is surprising and sad, therefore, how little effort has been devoted to research in this area; more so because such research is the only hope to ameliorate this suffering, or, to speak in the language of politics or economics, to decrease the enormous sums that we spend on trying to help our patients, with what is must generally be agreed are the most primitive and inadequate methods of treatment. Clearly, since functions of the brain are vital not only in illness, but in health, pathology is not the only area of concern to neurochemists, but it is an area that urgently needs neurochemical contributions. Progress in this field has been slower than in other areas of neurochemistry, and it seems that solutions in this field are very elusive. The reason for this is that the experimental approach is especially difficult in conditions specific for humans, or specific for complex behavior.

Brain Theory From A Circuits And Systems Perspective

Author: John Robert Burger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461464129
Size: 17.67 MB
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This book models an idealized neuron as being driven by basic electrical elements, the goal being to systematically characterize the logical properties of neural pulses. In order to constitute a system, neurons as pulsating devices may be represented using novel circuit elements as delineated in this book. A plausible brain system is implied by the delineated elements and logically follows from known and likely properties of a neuron. New to electrical science are novel pulse-related circuit elements involving recursive neurons. A recursive neuron, when properly excited, produces a self-sustaining pulse train that when sampled, provides a true output with a specified probability, and a false output with complementary probability. Because of its similarity to the qubits of quantum mechanics, the recursive pulsating neuron is termed a simulated qubit. Recursive neurons easily function as controlled toggle devices and so are capable of massively parallel calculations, this being a new dimension in brain functioning as described in this book. Simulated qubits and their possibilities are compared to the qubits of quantum physics. Included in the book are suggested neural circuits for associative memory search via a randomized process of cue selection, and neural circuits for priority calculations. These serve to select returns from long term memory, which in turn determines one's next conscious thought or action based on past memorized experiences. The book reports on proposals involving electron tunneling between synapses, and quantum computations within neurons. Although not a textbook, there are easy exercises at the ends of chapters, and in the appendix there are twelve simulation experiments concerning neurons. ​

Wavelets

Author: Amir-Homayoon Najmi
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421405598
Size: 77.65 MB
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Najmi’s primer will be an indispensable resource for those in computer science, the physical sciences, applied mathematics, and engineering who wish to obtain an in-depth understanding and working knowledge of this fascinating and evolving field.

Micromammals And Macroparasites

Author: S. Morand
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 4431360255
Size: 34.55 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive survey of the diversity and biology of metazoan parasites affecting small mammals, of their impact on host individuals and populations, and of the management implications of these parasites for conservation biology and human welfare. Designed for a broad, multidisciplinary audience, the book is an essential resource for researchers, students, and practitioners alike.

Theoretical Optics

Author: Hartmann Römer
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527604758
Size: 65.94 MB
Format: PDF
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Starting from basic electrodynamics, this volume provides a solid, yet concise introduction to theoretical optics, containing topics such as nonlinear optics, light-matter interaction, and modern topics in quantum optics, including entanglement, cryptography, and quantum computation. The author, with many years of experience in teaching and research, goes way beyond the scope of traditional lectures, enabling readers to keep up with the current state of knowledge. Both content and presentation make it essential reading for graduate and phD students as well as a valuable reference for researchers.

Multi Species Systems In Optical Lattices

Author: Fernanda Pinheiro
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319434640
Size: 71.87 MB
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This highly interdisciplinary thesis covers a wide range of topics relating to the interface of cold atoms, quantum simulation, quantum magnetism and disorder. With a self-contained presentation, it provides a broad overview of the rapidly evolving area of cold atoms and is of interest to both undergraduates and researchers working in the field. Starting with a general introduction to the physics of cold atoms and optical lattices, it extends the theory to that of systems with different multispecies atoms. It advances the theory of many-body quantum systems in excited bands (of optical lattices) through an extensive study of the properties of both the mean-field and strongly correlated regimes. Particular emphasis is given to the context of quantum simulation, where as shown here, the orbital degree of freedom in excited bands allows the study of exotic models of magnetism not easily achievable with the previous alternative systems. In addition, it proposes a new model Hamiltonian that serves as a quantum simulator of various disordered systems in different symmetry classes that can easily be reproduced experimentally. This is of great interest, especially for the study of disorder in 2D quantum systems.