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Thermophilic Microbes In Environmental And Industrial Biotechnology

Author: Tulasi Satyanarayana
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400758995
Size: 12.29 MB
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The existence of life at high temperatures is quiet fascinating. At elevated temperatures, only microorganisms are capable of growth and survival. Many thermophilic microbial genera have been isolated from man-made (washing machines, factory effluents, waste streams and acid mine effluents) and natural (volcanic areas, geothermal areas, terrestrial hot springs, submarine hydrothermal vents, geothermally heated oil reserves and oil wells, sun-heated litter and soils/sediments) thermal habitats throughout the world. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches have been employed for understanding the diversity of microbes in hot environments. Interest in their diversity, ecology, and physiology has increased enormously during the past few decades as indicated by the deliberations in international conferences on extremophiles and thermophiles held every alternate year and papers published in journals such as Extremophiles. Thermophilic moulds and bacteria have been extensively studied in plant biomass bioconversion processes as sources of industrial enzymes and as gene donors. In the development of third generation biofuels such as bioethanol, thermophilic fungal and bacterial enzymes are of particular interest. The book is aimed at bringing together scattered up-to-date information on various aspects of thermophiles such as the diversity of thermophiles and viruses of thermophiles, their potential roles in pollution control and bioremediation, and composting.

Industrial Biotechnology

Author: Christoph Wittmann
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527807780
Size: 58.63 MB
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The latest volume in the Advanced Biotechnology series provides an overview of the main production hosts and platform organisms used today as well as promising future cell factories in a two volume book. Alongside describing tools for genetic and metabolic engineering for strain improvement, the authors also impart topical information on computational tools, safety aspects and industrial-scale production. Following an introduction to general concepts, historical developments and future technologies, the text goes on to cover multi-purpose bacterial cell factories, including those organisms that exploit anaerobic biosynthetic power. Further chapters deal with microbes used for the production of high-value natural compounds and those obtained from alternative raw material sources, concluding with eukaryotic workhorses. Of interest to biotechnologists and microbiologists, as well as those working in the biotechnological, chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries.The latest volume in the Advanced Biotechnology series provides an overview of the main production hosts and platform organisms used today as well as promising future cell factories in a two volume book. Alongside describing tools for genetic and metabolic engineering for strain improvement, the authors also impart topical information on computational tools, safety aspects and industrial-scale production. Following an introduction to general concepts, historical developments and future technologies, the text goes on to cover multi-purpose bacterial cell factories, including those organisms that exploit anaerobic biosynthetic power. Further chapters deal with microbes used for the production of high-value natural compounds and those obtained from alternative raw material sources, concluding with eukaryotic workhorses. Of interest to biotechnologists and microbiologists, as well as those working in the biotechnological, chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries.

Microbial Enzyme Technology In Food Applications

Author: Ramesh C. Ray
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498749844
Size: 37.72 MB
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The aim of food processing is to produce food that is palatable and tastes good, extend its shelf-life, increase the variety, and maintain the nutritional and healthcare quality of food. To achieve favorable processing conditions and for the safety of the food to be consumed, use of food grade microbial enzymes or microbes (being the natural biocatalysts) is imperative. This book discusses the uses of enzymes in conventional and non-conventional food and beverage processing as well as in dairy processing, brewing, bakery and wine making. Apart from conventional uses, the development of bioprocessing tools and techniques have significantly expanded the potential for extensive application of enzymes such as in production of bioactive peptides, oligosaccharides and lipids, flavor and colorants. Some of these developments include extended use of the biocatalysts (as immobilized/encapsulated enzymes), microbes (both natural and genetically modified) as sources for bulk enzymes, solid state fermentation technology for enzyme production. Extremophiles and marine microorganisms are another source of food grade enzymes. The book throws light on potential applications of microbial enzymes to expand the base of food processing industries.

Extremophiles In Eurasian Ecosystems Ecology Diversity And Applications

Author: Dilfuza Egamberdieva
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811303290
Size: 40.86 MB
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This book explores various aspects of thermophilic and halophilic microbes from Eurasian ecosystems, which have proved to offer a unique reservoir of genetic diversity and biological source of extremophiles. It also covers the biotechnological uses of extremophiles, and their potential use in agricultural and industrial applications. The topics addressed include but are not limited to: diversity and microbial ecology, microbe-environment interactions, adaptation and evolution, element cycling and biotechnological applications of thermophiles and halophiles in Eurasian ecosystems. In order to review the progress made in biology and biotechnological applications of thermophiles and halophiles, the book combines review papers and results of original research from various specialists and authorities in the field. It includes several chapters describing the microbial diversity and ecology of geothermal springs distributed among the territory of various Eurasian countries, such as Armenia, Bulgaria, China, Georgia, India, Italy, Pakistan and Turkey. A dedicated chapter discusses selected aspects of thermophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria isolated from mining sites (sulfide ores); detailed descriptions of various thermophile microbes isolated from high-temperature environments and their biotechnological potential are also provided. Subsequent chapters describe the diversity and ecology of halophilic microbes harbored in saline and hypersaline lakes in Iran, Turkey and China; soil and plant microbiomes in saline arid lands of Uzbekistan; microbial diversity in Asian deserts; and the potential applications of thermophilic and halophilic microbes as exopolysaccharide (EPS) producers, focusing on the chemistry and applications of the EPS they produce. We hope that this book will prove valuable as an up-to-date overview of the current state of research on Eurasian extremophiles in general and thermophiles and halophiles in particular. Many questions remain unanswered, and we hope that it will stimulate further studies in this intriguing and promising field.

Industrial Biotechnology

Author: Devarajan Thangadurai
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 177188262X
Size: 47.42 MB
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This important new book covers recent advancements, innovations, and technologies in industrial biotechnology, specifically addressing the application of various biomolecules in industrial production and in cleaning and environmental remediation sectors. The goal of industrial biotechnology is to develop new techniques and technologies to transform renewable raw materials into chemicals, materials, and fuels by the substitution of fossil fuels. With the increase in the world’s population and the resultant growing energy demand, the need for more energy can be successfully met with the advancements in industrial biotechnology. Currently across the globe significant research has been undertaken in the production of cleaner fuels, materials, and semi-synthetic chemicals, with environmental benefits. Developing countries have huge agricultural resources that could be utilized for production of value-added byproducts for the sustainable development of bio-based economy. The book opens with the chapter on the production of exopolysaccharides from halophilic microorganisms, a polymer that is normally very useful in various production sectors of the food, pharmaceutical, and petroleum industries. The book goes on to cover: The production of antimicrobial compounds from alkaliphilic bacteria Thermophilic actinomycetes Food, agro, and pharmaceutical potential and biotechnological applications of biosurfactants, halophiles, cyclodextrin glycosyl transferease, fungal chitinase, proteases, yeasts and yeast products Also covered in the book are the environmental aspects of industrial biotechnology such as the genetic enhancement for biofuel production, the production of biodegradable thermoplastics, advancements in the synthesis of bio-oil, ecofriendly treatment of agro-based lignocelluloses, and anaerobic bio reactors for hydrocarbon remediation. The international roster of chapter authors have been chosen for their renowned expertise and contribution to the various fields of industrial biotechnology. This book is suitable to chemists, biotechnologists from research institutes, academia, and students as well as for industry professionals

Thermophiles

Author: Frank Robb
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420008852
Size: 73.59 MB
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We might think of them as living on the very edge of existence. Referred to as extremophiles, these microorganisms exhibit the most radical capacity for adaptation in those harsh environments that are just barely conducive to the existence of cellular life. Unlocking the mechanisms and understanding the evolutionary development that allows these simple organisms to thrive can teach us much about microbiology in extremis. Highly diverse, these microorganisms are found nearly everywhere. One example, thermophiles are microorganisms that thrive at temperatures above the mesophilic range of 25-40 degrees C. Until recently, due to their extreme environment, the study of thermophiles was limited. However with the advent of new tools, particularly genetic analysis, remarkable strides have been made. Thermophiles: Biology and Technology at High Temperatures presents a cogent summary of the progress made in studying these extremophiles. Discover how thermophiles demonstrate extremes that indicate a lack of evolutionary constraints Much is being learned from the study of thermophiles, especially our understanding of biology at the molecular level and the genetic mechanisms that permit adaptation. Included in this volume is a discussion of protective strategies of thermophiles, including their thermostability, which allow them to maintain functional proteins. It also investigates whether hyperthermophiles employ protein phosphorylation-dephosphryation as a molecular regulatory mechanism, and provides significant clues regarding the synthesis of protein. By studying this extreme example, its subtle, yet exaggerated response mechanisms, and its development over the course of many short-lived generations, we may begin to understand the mechanisms in diseases linked to improper protein folding, and also begin to more fully understand the ingenious design of DNA, and all that such an understanding implies regarding the survival of human life in a rapidly changing environment.

Thermophiles Biodiversity Ecology And Evolution

Author: Anna-Louise Reysenbach
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461511976
Size: 70.28 MB
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These are indeed exciting times to be a microbiologist. With one of the buzzwords of the past decade-"Biodiversity," and microbes are reveling in the attention as they represent by far most of the biodiversity on Earth. Microbes can thrive in almost any environment where there is an exploitable energy source, and, as a result, the possible existence of microbial life elsewhere in the solar system has stimulated the imaginations of many. Extremophiles have taken center stage in these investigations, and thermophiles have taken on the lead roles. Consequently, in the past decade there has been a surge of interest and research in the Ecology, Biology, and Biotechnology of microorganisms from thermal environments. Many of the foundations of thermophile research were laid in Yellowstone National Park, primarily by the research of Professor Thomas Brock's laboratory in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The upper temperature for life was debated, the first thermophilic archeum discovered (although it was only later shown to be an archeum by ribosomal cataloging), and the extremes of light, temperature, pH on the physiology of microorga nisms were explored. Interest in thermophiles increased steadily in the 1970s, and with the discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977, thermophilic research began its expo nential explosion. The development of Taq polymerase in the polymerase chain reaction (peR) focused interest on the biotechnological potential of thermophilic microorganisms and on the thermal features in Yellowstone National Park.

Thermophilic Carboxydotrophs And Their Applications In Biotechnology

Author: Sonia M. Tiquia-Arashiro
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319118730
Size: 30.86 MB
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The book describes the products produced by carboxydotrophic bacteria and their biotechnological applications. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a widespread pollutant and a hazard to man because of its extremely toxic nature. It is a major component of some industrial gas mixtures and may be derived from coal. The carboxydotrophic bacteria obtain energy and carbon from the oxidation of CO. These organisms may be used to produce new metabolites, and the oxidases from them may be used to produce fuel cells and biosensors for CO.

Biotechnology Of Extremophiles

Author: Pabulo H Rampelotto
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331913521X
Size: 79.21 MB
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Aimed at research scientists and biotechnologists, this book is an essential reading for those working with extremophiles and their potential biotechnological application. Here, we provide a comprehensive and reliable source of information on the recent advances and challenges in different aspects of the theme. Written in an accessible language, the book is also a recommended as reference text for anyone interested in this thriving field of research. Over the last decades, the study of extremophiles has provided ground breaking discoveries that challenge our understanding of biochemistry and molecular biology. In the applied side, extremophiles and their enzymes have spawned a multibillion dollar biotechnology industry, with applications spanning biomedical, pharmaceutical, industrial, environmental, and agricultural sectors. Taq DNA polymerase (which was isolated from Thermus aquaticus from a geothermal spring in Yellowstone National Park) is the most well-known example of the potential biotechnological application of extremophiles and their biomolecules. Indeed, the application of extremophiles and their biologically active compounds has opened a new era in biotechnology. However, despite the latest advances, we are just in the beginning of exploring the biotechnological potentials of extremophiles.