Download trading in genes development perspectives on biotechnology trade and sustainability in pdf or read trading in genes development perspectives on biotechnology trade and sustainability in pdf online books in PDF, EPUB and Mobi Format. Click Download or Read Online button to get trading in genes development perspectives on biotechnology trade and sustainability in pdf book now. This site is like a library, Use search box in the widget to get ebook that you want.



Trading In Genes

Author: Ricardo Melendez-Ortiz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136551050
Size: 30.52 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 1804
Download and Read
Sustaining the new bioeconomy requires a global biotechnology governance regime to bring a large number of developing countries into the global trading system. Failure to do so will create a "genetic divide" among countries and is likely to intensify public opposition to biotechnology. This interdisciplinary collection of perspectives from the developing world - on debates over the relationships between biotechnology, biosafety, sustainable development and trade - seeks to bridge the gap between the different areas of regulatory activities and academic research and between the various stakeholders in the debate. Leading experts, writing for the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, examine: the risks and opportunities of biotechnology; biosafety; intellectual property rights and related issues of access to genetic resources; benefit-sharing and traditional knowledge; biotechnological development; capacity building; the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety; relevant WTO provisions; and developing countries' options in the WTO context.

The Implementation Game

Author: Carolyn Deere
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191564060
Size: 26.93 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 3923
Download and Read
With the launch of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995, its Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) emerged as a symbol of coercion in international economic relations. In the decade that followed, intellectual property became one of the most contentious topics of global policy debate. This book is the first full-length study of the politics surrounding what developing countries did to implement TRIPS and why. Based on a review of the evidence from 1995 to 2007, this book emphasises that developing countries exhibited considerable variation in their approach to TRIPS implementation. In particular, developing countries took varying degrees of advantage of the legal safeguards and options-commonly known as TRIPS 'flexibilities'-that the Agreement provides. To explain this variation, this book argues that TRIPS implementation must be understood as a complex political game played out among developing country governments and a range of stakeholders-developed countries, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), intergovernmental organisations (IGOs), and industry groups. The contested nature of the TRIPS bargain spurred competing efforts to revise the terms of TRIPS and to influence global IP regulation more broadly. The intensity of the implementation game was amplified by an awareness among the various stakeholders that the IP reforms developing countries pursued would influence these ongoing international negotiations. The book attributes the variation in TRIPS implementation to the interplay between these global IP debates, international power pressures, and political dynamics within developing countries. The book includes historical analysis, compilations of evidence, and analysis supported by examples from across the developing world. The Implementation Game will be of interest both to scholars of international relations, law, and international political economy as well as to policymakers, commentators, and activists engaged in debates on the global governance of intellectual property.

Public Policy In International Economic Law

Author: Diane Desierto
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191026484
Size: 16.80 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 7270
Download and Read
States reject inequality when they choose to ratify the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), but to date the ICESCR has not yet figured prominently in the policy calculus behind States' international economic decisions. This book responds to the modern challenge of operationalizing the ICESCR, particularly in the context of States' decisions within international trade, finance, and investment. Differentiating between public policy mechanisms and institutional functional mandates in the international trade, finance, and investment systems, this book shows legal and policy gateways for States to feasibly translate their fundamental duties to respect, protect, and fulfil economic, social and cultural rights into their trade, finance, and investment commitments, agreements, and contracts. It approaches the problem of harmonizing social protection objectives under the ICESCR with a State's international economic treaty obligations, from the designing and interpreting international treaty texts, up to the institutional monitoring and empirical analysis of ICESCR compliance. In examining public policy options, the book takes into account around five decades of States' implementation of social protection commitments under the ICESCR; its normative evolution through the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the Committee's expanded fact-finding and adjudicative competences under the Optional Protocol to the ICESCR; as well as the critical, dialectical, and deliberative roles of diverse functional interpretive communities within international trade, finance, and investment law. Ultimately, the book shoes how States' ICESCR commitments operate as the normative foundation of their trade, finance, and investment decisions.

Trading In Knowledge

Author: Christophe Bellmann
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136550984
Size: 50.56 MB
Format: PDF
View: 4742
Download and Read
An unprecedented surge in the scope and level of intellectual property rights (IPR) protection has been engulfing the world. This globalizing trend has shifted the balance of interests between private innovators and society at large and tensions have flared around key public policy concerns. As developing nations' policy options to use IPRs in support of their broader development strategy are being rapidly narrowed down, many experts are questioning the one-size-fits-all approach to IPR protection and are backing a rebalancing of the global regime. Developing countries face huge challenges when designing and implementing IPR-policy on all levels. This book offers perspectives from a diverse range of developing country participants including civil society participants, farmers, grassroots organizations, researchers and government officials. Contributions from well-known developed country authorities round out the selections.

Intellectual Property And Sustainable Development

Author: Ricardo Meléndez-Ortiz
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1849803455
Size: 23.92 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 6822
Download and Read
ÔThis is a thought-provoking book with relevance to a broad readership, especially IP practitioners with a strong international focus.Õ Ð Australian Intellectual Property Law Bulletin Intellectual property (IP) has gained an unprecedented importance in the new world of globalization and the knowledge economy. However, experience, as well as cyclical attitudes toward IP, show that there is no universal model of IP protection. This comprehensive book considers new and emerging IP issues from a development perspective, examining recent trends and developments in this area. Presenting an overview of the IP landscape in general, the contributing authors subsequently narrow their focus, providing wide-ranging case studies from countries across Africa, Asia and Latin America on topical issues in the current IP discourse. These include the impact of IP on the pharmaceutical sector, the protection of life forms and traditional knowledge, geographical indications, access to knowledge and public research institutes, and the role of competition policy. The challenges developing countries face in the TRIPS-Plus world are also explored in detail. The diverse range of contributions to this thought-provoking book offer a wide variety of alternative perspectives on and solutions for the controversial issues surrounding the role of IP within sustainable development. As such, it will prove a stimulating read for government policy-makers, trade negotiators, academics, lawyers and IP practitioners in general, UN and other intergovernmental agencies, development campaigners and aid agencies, environmentalist groups and university students.

Survival For A Small Planet

Author: Tom Bigg
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136556222
Size: 69.41 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 2090
Download and Read
Few scientific developments have given rise to as much controversy as biotechnology. Numerous groups are united in their opposition, expressing concern over environmental and health risks, impacts on rural livelihoods, the economic dominance of multinational companies and the ethical implications of crossing species boundaries. Among the supporters of the technology are those that believe in its potential to enhance food security, further economic development, increase productivity and reduce environmental pressures. As a result, countries - and sectors within countries - find themselves at odds with each other while potential opportunities for development offered by the use of biotechnology are seized or missed, and related risks go unmanaged. This book, a unique interdisciplinary collection of perspectives from the developing world, examines the ongoing debate. Writing for the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, leading experts address issues such as diffusion of technology, intellectual property rights, the Cartagena Protocol, impacts of international trade, capacity building and biotechnology research and regulation. With the most recent and relevant examples from around the world, Trading in Genes offers the reader a single-volume overview of the connections between biotechnology, trade and sustainability that is both wide-ranging and thorough.

Environmental Governance In Kenya

Author: C. Odidi Okidi
Publisher: East African Educ Press
ISBN:
Size: 52.85 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 1180
Download and Read
Kenya is one of about 42 African countries which have enacted framework environmental laws. 14 January 2000 was the Date of Commencement of the Environment Management and Co-ordination Act (EMCA) after its adoption in December 1999 and receipt of Presidential Assent on 6 January 2000. From that date, all sectoral laws were expected to be reviewed or amended to ensure consistency with the requirements of EMCA. Under Section 148 of EMCA: "Any written law, in force immediately before the coming into force of this Act, relating to the management of the environment shall have effect subject to modification as may be necessary to give effect to this Act, and where the provisions of any such law conflict with any provisions of this Act, the provisions of this Act shall prevail". This book is an appraisal of the extent to which this provision has been implemented. It critically analyses environmental law in Kenya with a view to identifying the convergences and divergences between select sectoral laws and EMCA. The ultimate objective is to support internal harmonization of the corpus of environmental law in Kenya.