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Transforming Brazil

Author: Rafael R. Ioris
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317680022
Size: 59.25 MB
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In this book, Rafael R. Ioris critically revisits the postwar context in Brazil to reexamine traditional questions and notions pertaining to the nature of Latin America’s political culture and institutions. It was in this period that the region lived some of its most intense and successful experiences of fast economic growth, which was paradoxically marred by heightened ideological divisions, political disruptions, and the emergence of widespread authoritarian rule. Combining original sources of political, diplomatic, intellectual, cultural, and labor histories, Ioris provides a comprehensive history of the fruitful debates concerning national development in postwar Brazil, a time when the so-called country of the future faced one of its best moments for consolidating political democracy and economic prosperity. He argues that traditional views on political instability have been excessively grounded on an institutional focus, which should be replaced by in-depth analysis of events on the ground. In so doing, he reveals that as national development meant very different things to multiple different social segments of the Brazilian society, no unified support could have been provided to the democratically elected political regime when things rapidly became socially and politically divisive early in the 1960s. Innovating in its multidimensional analytical scope and interdisciplinary focus, Transforming Brazil provides a rich political, cultural, and intellectual examination of a historical period characterized by rapid socio-economic changes amidst significant political instability and the heightened ideological polarization shaping the political scenario of Brazil and much of Latin America in the Cold War era.

Manipulating Courts In New Democracies

Author: Andrea Castagnola
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351986074
Size: 49.38 MB
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When can the Executive manipulate the composition of a Court? What political factors explain judicial instability on the bench?? Using original field data from Argentina's National Supreme Court and all twenty-four Provincial Supreme Courts, Andrea Castagnola develops a novel theory to explain forced retirements of judges. She argues that in developing democracies the political benefits of manipulating the court outweigh the costs associated with doing so. The instability of the political context and its institutions causes politicians to focus primarily on short-term goals and to care mostly about winning elections. Consequently, judiciaries become a valuable tool for politicians to have under their control. Contrary to the predictions of strategic retirement theory, Castagnola demonstrates that there are various institutional and non-institutional mechanisms for induced retirement which politicians have used against justices, regardless of the amount of support their party has in Congress. The theoretical innovations contained herein shed much needed light on the existing literature on judicial politics and democratization. Even though the political manipulation of courts is a worldwide phenomenon, previous studies have shown that Argentina is the theory-generating case for studying manipulation of high courts.?

Re Imagining Community And Civil Society In Latin America And The Caribbean

Author: Roberta Rice
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315530872
Size: 34.33 MB
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Latin American and Caribbean communities and civil societies are undergoing a rapid process of transformation. Instead of pervasive social atomization, political apathy, and hollowed-out democracies, which have become the norm in some parts of the world, this region is witnessing an emerging collaboration between community, civil society, and government that is revitalizing democracy. This book argues that a key explanation lies in the powerful and positive relationship between community and civil society that exists in the region. The ideas of community and civil society tend to be studied separately, as analytically distinct concepts however, this volume seeks to explore their potential to work together. A unique contribution of the work is the space for dialogue it creates between the social sciences and the humanities. Many of the studies included in the volume are based on primary fieldwork and place-based case studies. Others relate literature, music and film to important theoretical works, providing a new direction in interdisciplinary studies, and highlighting the role that the arts play in community revival and broader processes of social change. A truly multi-disciplinary book bridging established notions of civil society and community through an authentically interdisciplinary approach to the topic.

The Politics Of Capitalist Transformation

Author: Jeff Seward
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317269543
Size: 63.69 MB
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The Politics of Capitalist Transformation is the only book-length study of the highly protectionist Brazilian informatics policy from its origins in the early 1970s to the collapse of the market reserve in the early 1990s and its impact in subsequent decades. Jeff Seward provides a sophisticated political analysis of how state activists constructed high levels of state autonomy to try to shift Brazil to a new variety of capitalism by eclipsing the multinational companies (especially IBM) that dominated the Brazilian computer sector and replacing them with local companies with 100 percent Brazilian technology and ownership. This ambitious policy required repeated shifts of political strategy and policymaking institutions to respond to a constantly changing economic and political environment as Brazil made a dramatic transition from military dictatorship to democracy. The innovative framework to analyze state autonomy and the sophisticated political analysis of the policymaking process will be of interest to scholars and students of Brazilian and Latin American political economy, varieties of capitalism theory, state theory, democratic transition theory, and high technology policymaking in developing countries.

Iberia And The Americas

Author: John Michael Francis
Publisher: Abc-clio
ISBN: 9781851094219
Size: 10.82 MB
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This comprehensive encyclopedia covers the reciprocal effects that the politics, foreign policy, and culture of Spain, Portugal, and the American nations have had on one another since the time of Columbus.

Blackwater

Author: Jeremy Scahill
Publisher: Antje Kunstmann
ISBN: 3888978548
Size: 75.33 MB
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Kaum jemand hatte von der Firma Blackwater gehört, als am 16. September 2007 im Irak 17 Zivilisten erschossen wurden – von einem Söldnertrupp. Schnell stellte sich heraus, dass sie zu einer Art Privatarmee gehörten, die im Irak und anderswo für die USA Krieg führt, unbemerkt von der Öffentlichkeit und immun gegen Strafverfolgung. Blackwater: die mächtigste militärische Dienst­leis­tungsfirma der Welt. Ihr Gründer Erik Prince, Multimillionär und christlicher Fundamentalist, hat beste Kontakte zur Regierung. Und erkennt nach dem 11. September 2001, wie viel Geld sich mit dem »Outsourcing« militärischer Leistungen verdienen lässt: Bushs »Krieg gegen den Terror« ist die Steilvorlage für den kometenhaften Aufstieg der Firma. Blackwaters Elitesoldaten schützen US-Politiker und Geschäftsleute im Irak – gegen ein Gehalt, von dem GIs nur träumen können. Blackwater kann bei Bedarf Truppen und eine Flugzeugflotte zur Verfügung stellen, groß genug, Regierungen zu stürzen. Blackwaters Söldner bewachen Öl-Pipelines, seine »Sicherheitskräfte« patrouillierten nach Katrina in den Straßen von New Orleans. Doch erst jetzt fällt dem US-Kongress auf, dass die martialischen Rambos keinerlei parlamentarischer Kontrolle, keiner Gerichtsbarkeit unterliegen. Mit seiner glänzend recherchierten Geschichte der Firma Blackwater zeigt Jeremy Scahill überzeugend auf, welche Gefahren der Demokratie drohen, wenn die Regierung ihr Gewaltmonopol privatisiert.

Development And Social Change

Author: Philip McMichael
Publisher: Pine Forge Press
ISBN: 1412955920
Size: 47.30 MB
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"Development and Social Change is a richly described and well written survey of change in the post-1950 period...The first edition was a practical and accessible contribution to the literature on social change. The fourth edition continues in this vein." -TEACHING SOCIOLOGY Explores development through historical narrative and examines the globalization/development paradox through in-depth case studies Development and Social Change: A Global Perspective, Fourth Edition, describes the dramatic acceleration of the global and political economy across three historical periods: colonialism, the development era, and the current era of globalization. Author Philip McMichael helps students make sense of a complex world in transition and explains how globalization became part of public discourse. Filled with case studies, this text makes the intricacies of globalization concrete, meaningful, and clear for students and moves them away from simple social evolutionary views, encouraging them to ponder social change, development, and global inequalities. The book challenges students to see themselves as global citizens whose consumption decisions have real implications. New to the Fourth Edition Links contemporary world issues such as slum proliferation, rebellion in Latin America, AIDS, the rise of China, and climate change to the long-term course of development as a global project Weaves a stronger ecological theme into the story and emphasizes gendered features of modernization, as well as the complexity of its progressive claims, urging students to think critically about the costs and benefits of development Reviews current trends and asks new questions about the future of international development Instructors Resources on CD are available to qualified instructors. Contact [email protected] or 1-800-818-7243 (6 am - 5 pm, PT) to request a copy. Intended Audience This text is an ideal core or supplementary text for a variety of undergraduate or beginning graduate courses such as Globalization, Social Development, and Social Change in departments of sociology, political science, and global studies.