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Tribology In Chemical Mechanical Planarization

Author: Hong Liang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420028391
Size: 69.20 MB
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The role that friction and contact play in the processes of wear and planarization on material surfaces is central to the understanding of Chemical-Mechanical planarization (CMP) technology, particularly when applied to nanosurfaces. Tribology in Chemical-Mechanical Planarization presents a detailed account of the CMP process in a language that is suitable for tribology professionals as well as chemists, materials scientists, physicists, and other applied scientists and engineers in fields of semiconductors and microelectronics. The first half of the book is devoted to CMP, while the other focuses on the fundamentals of tribology. As the first source to integrate CMP and tribology, the book illustrates the important role that these fields play in manufacturing and technological development. It follows with an examination of tribological principles and their applications in CMP, including integrated circuits, basic concepts in surfaces of contacts, and common defects. Other topics covered in depth include basics of friction, flash temperature, lubrication fundamentals, basics of wear, polishing particles, and pad wear. The book concludes its focus with CMP practices, discussing mechanical aspects, pad materials, elastic modulus, and cell buckling. Expanding upon the science and technology of tribology to improve the reliability, maintenance, and wear of technical equipment and other material applications, Tribology in Chemical-Mechanical Planarization provides scientists and engineers with clear foresight to the future of this technology.

Microelectronic Applications Of Chemical Mechanical Planarization

Author: Yuzhuo Li
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471719199
Size: 68.21 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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An authoritative, systematic, and comprehensive description of current CMP technology Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) provides the greatest degree of planarization of any known technique. The current standard for integrated circuit (IC) planarization, CMP is playing an increasingly important role in other related applications such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and computer hard drive manufacturing. This reference focuses on the chemical aspects of the technology and includes contributions from the foremost experts on specific applications. After a detailed overview of the fundamentals and basic science of CMP, Microelectronic Applications of Chemical Mechanical Planarization: Provides in-depth coverage of a wide range of state-of-the-art technologies and applications Presents information on new designs, capabilities, and emerging technologies, including topics like CMP with nanomaterials and 3D chips Discusses different types of CMP tools, pads for IC CMP, modeling, and the applicability of tribometrology to various aspects of CMP Covers nanotopography, CMP performance and defect profiles, CMP waste treatment, and the chemistry and colloidal properties of the slurries used in CMP Provides a perspective on the opportunities and challenges of the next fifteen years Complete with case studies, this is a valuable, hands-on resource for professionals, including process engineers, equipment engineers, formulation chemists, IC manufacturers, and others. With systematic organization and questions at the end of each chapter to facilitate learning, it is an ideal introduction to CMP and an excellent text for students in advanced graduate courses that cover CMP or related semiconductor manufacturing processes.

Tribology Of Abrasive Machining Processes

Author: Ioan D. Marinescu
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 1437734677
Size: 64.79 MB
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This book draws upon the science of tribology to understand, predict and improve abrasive machining processes. Pulling together information on how abrasives work, the authors, who are renowned experts in abrasive technology, demonstrate how tribology can be applied as a tool to improve abrasive machining processes. Each of the main elements of the abrasive machining system are looked at, and the tribological factors that control the efficiency and quality of the processes are described. Since grinding is by far the most commonly employed abrasive machining process, it is dealt with in particular detail. Solutions are posed to many of the most commonly experienced industrial problems, such as poor accuracy, poor surface quality, rapid wheel wear, vibrations, work-piece burn and high process costs. This practical approach makes this book an essential tool for practicing engineers. Uses the science of tribology to improve understanding and of abrasive machining processes in order to increase performance, productivity and surface quality of final products A comprehensive reference on how abrasives work, covering kinematics, heat transfer, thermal stresses, molecular dynamics, fluids and the tribology of lubricants Authoritative and ground-breaking in its first edition, the 2nd edition includes 30% new and updated material, including new topics such as CMP (Chemical Mechanical Polishing) and precision machining for micro-and nano-scale applications

Advances In Chemical Mechanical Planarization Cmp

Author: Suryadevara Babu
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0081002181
Size: 55.80 MB
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Advances in Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) provides the latest information on a mainstream process that is critical for high-volume, high-yield semiconductor manufacturing, and even more so as device dimensions continue to shrink. The technology has grown to encompass the removal and planarization of multiple metal and dielectric materials and layers both at the device and the metallization levels, using different tools and parameters, requiring improvements in the control of topography and defects. This important book offers a systematic review of fundamentals and advances in the area. Part One covers CMP of dielectric and metal films, with chapters focusing on the use of particular techniques and processes, and on CMP of particular various materials, including ultra low-k materials and high-mobility channel materials, and ending with a chapter reviewing the environmental impacts of CMP processes. Part Two addresses consumables and process control for improved CMP, and includes chapters on the preparation and characterization of slurry, diamond disc pad conditioning, the use of FTIR spectroscopy for characterization of surface processes, and approaches for defection characterization, mitigation, and reduction. Considers techniques and processes for CMP of dielectric and metal films Includes chapters devoted to CMP for particular materials Addresses consumables and process control for improved CMP

Chemical Mechanical Planarization Of Microelectronic Materials

Author: Joseph M. Steigerwald
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471138273
Size: 57.95 MB
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The only comprehensive reference to one of the fastest growing integrated circuit manufacturing technologies, Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Microelectronic Materials is an important resource for research scientists and engineers working in the microelectronics industry.

Methods For Efficient Slurry Utilization And Tribological Stability Analysis In Chemical Mechanical Planarization

Author: Matthew Bahr
Size: 25.92 MB
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This thesis presents a series of studies pertaining to tribological, thermal, kinetic and slurry utilization aspects of chemical mechanical planaraization processes. The purpose of this work is to both develop a better method of characterizing the tribological mechanisms during polishing, as well as propose methods by which slurry utilization efficiency can be increased in order to minimize environmental hazards and operational costs associated with polishing without compromising the desired polish outcomes. The first study was conducted using a modified version of the generic Stribeck curve using real-time shear and down force data collection at 1,000 Hz. This investigation served to provide a better understanding of the tribological and thermal mechanisms associated with polishing copper and tungsten blanket wafers on an industrially relevant soft pad. A multitude of gradual yet continuous changes in sliding velocity and polishing pressure were applied during polishing. Results indicated that polishing on the soft pad produced stable coefficient of friction (COF) values entirely within the "boundary lubrication" regime, while copper polishing on a hard pads produced a tremendous spread of data and resulted in both “boundary lubrication” and "mixed lubrication" regimes. In addition, the average pad surface temperature showed a linear relationship with the product of the COF, sliding velocity, and downward pressure for all copper and tungsten polishes on both soft and hard pads. Another study in this thesis investigated slurry availability and the extent of slurry mixing for three different slurry injection schemes. An ultraviolet enhanced fluorescence technique was employed to qualitatively measure slurry film thicknesses atop the pad surface during polishing. This study investigated standard pad-center point slurry dispensing and a slurry injection system (SIS) that covered only the outer half of the wafer track. Results indicated that the radial position of slurry injection and fluid interactions with the SIS greatly influenced slurry mixing and availability atop the pad. Silicon dioxide removal rates were also found to increase as slurry availability increased. Using a combination of standard pad-center slurry dispensing and a half-wafer track SIS resulted in similar silicon dioxide removal rates as standard pad-center slurry dispensing but at a 40% lower slurry flowrate. The final study in this thesis investigated the effects of ultrapure (UPW) water dilution of a ceria-based slurry on silicon dioxide removal rates. Results showed that pre-mixing the slurry and UPW increased the removal rate with dilution up to a slurry to UPW ratio of 1:7.5 due to the increasing presence of Ce3+ via the reduction of Ce4+ by UPW. Further dilution yielded a plateau in the removal rate trend as additional UPW reduced the coefficient of friction (COF) and the temperature during polishing, causing the benefits of increased ceria-silica binding to be offset by mechanical limitations. Mixing the slurry directly at point-of-use at the dispense nozzle resulted in a removal rate trend that was highly similar to pre-mixing, however, removal rates were higher at every dilution ratio. A novel slurry injection system (SIS) was employed at various rotation angles as measured from the leading edge. The SIS angles produced different retaining ring bow wave thicknesses, which led to varying extents of dilution and, by extension, removal rates. The SIS at -8° produced the highest removal rates of all angles. A third dilution ratio test was performed using point-of-use mixing through the SIS at the optimum angle of -8°, which resulted in a similar removal rate trend as pre-mixing and pad-center dispense point-of use mixing, but with dramatically higher removal rates at each dilution ratio. The ability to attain higher removal rates could potentially allow integrated circuit (IC) manufacturers to either reduce polishing times or reduce slurry consumption, subsequently reducing slurry waste and creating a more environmentally benign semiconductor manufacturing process.

Advanced Tribology

Author: Jianbin Luo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642036538
Size: 71.46 MB
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"Advanced Tribology" is the proceedings of the 5th China International Symposium on Tribology (held every four years) and the 1st International Tribology Symposium of IFToMM, held in Beijing 24th-27th September 2008. It contains seven parts: lubrication; friction and wear; micro/nano-tribology; tribology of coatings, surface and interface; biotribology; tribo-chemistry; industry tribology. The book reflects the recent progress in the fields such as lubrication, friction and wear, coatings, and precision manufacture etc. in the world. The book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduate students in the field of tribology, lubrication, mechanical production and industrial design. The editors Jianbin Luo, Yonggang Meng, Tianmin Shao and Qian Zhao are all the professors at the State Key Lab of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing.

Advances In Cmp Polishing Technologies For The Manufacture Of Electronic Devices

Author: Toshiro Doi
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 1437778593
Size: 27.54 MB
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CMP and polishing are the most precise processes used to finish the surfaces of mechanical and electronic or semiconductor components. Advances in CMP/Polishing Technologies for Manufacture of Electronic Devices presents the latest developments and technological innovations in the field - making cutting-edge R&D accessible to the wider engineering community. Most of the applications of these processes are kept as confidential as possible (proprietary information), and specific details are not seen in professional or technical journals and magazines. This book makes these processes and applications accessible to a wider industrial and academic audience. Building on the fundamentals of tribology - the science of friction, wear and lubrication - the authors explore the practical applications of CMP and polishing across various market sectors. Due to the high pace of development of the electronics and semiconductors industry, many of the presented processes and applications come from these industries. Demystifies scientific developments and technological innovations, opening them up for new applications and process improvements in the semiconductor industry and other areas of precision engineering Explores stock removal mechanisms in CMP and polishing, and the challenges involved in predicting the outcomes of abrasive processes in high-precision environments The authors bring together the latest innovations and research from the USA and Japan