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Tunnel Visions

Author: Michael Riordan
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022629479X
Size: 28.53 MB
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In October 1993 the US Congress terminated the Superconducting Super Collider at the time the largest basic-science project ever attempted, with a total cost estimated to exceed $10 billion. Its termination was a watershed event a pivot point not only in the history of physics but also for science in general. "Tunnel Visions" follows the evolution of the endeavor from its origins in the Reagan Administration s military buildup of the early 1980s to its post-Cold War demise a decade later. The failure of the SSC raises the question of whether Big Science has become too big and expensive; can scientists and their government backers effectively manage such enormous undertakings? The case of the Super Collider offers important lessons about the conditions required to build and sustain a large scientific laboratory, and the rise and fall of the SSC also serves as a cautionary tale about the long-term viability of a research community that comes to depend as much as did US high-energy physics upon a single experimental facility of such an unprecedented scale. Riordan, Hoddeson, and Kolb have written the definitive history of the SSC. "

Tunnel Visions

Author: Michael Riordan
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226598901
Size: 78.28 MB
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Starting in the 1950s, US physicists dominated the search for elementary particles; aided by the association of this research with national security, they held this position for decades. In an effort to maintain their hegemony and track down the elusive Higgs boson, they convinced President Reagan and Congress to support construction of the multibillion-dollar Superconducting Super Collider project in Texas—the largest basic-science project ever attempted. But after the Cold War ended and the estimated SSC cost surpassed ten billion dollars, Congress terminated the project in October 1993. Drawing on extensive archival research, contemporaneous press accounts, and over one hundred interviews with scientists, engineers, government officials, and others involved, Tunnel Visions tells the riveting story of the aborted SSC project. The authors examine the complex, interrelated causes for its demise, including problems of large-project management, continuing cost overruns, and lack of foreign contributions. In doing so, they ask whether Big Science has become too large and expensive, including whether academic scientists and their government overseers can effectively manage such an enormous undertaking.

Fermilab

Author: Lillian Hoddeson
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226346250
Size: 25.38 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, located in the western suburbs of Chicago, has stood at the frontier of high-energy physics for forty years. Fermilab is the first history of this laboratory and of its powerful accelerators told from the point of view of the people who built and used them for scientific discovery. Focusing on the first two decades of research at Fermilab, during the tenure of the laboratory’s charismatic first two directors, Robert R. Wilson and Leon M. Lederman, the book traces the rise of what they call “megascience,” the collaborative struggle to conduct large-scale international experiments in a climate of limited federal funding. In the midst of this new climate, Fermilab illuminates the growth of the modern research laboratory during the Cold War and captures the drama of human exploration at the cutting edge of science.

Drawing Theories Apart

Author: David Kaiser
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226422658
Size: 75.23 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Winner of the 2007 Pfizer Prize from the History of Science Society. Feynman diagrams have revolutionized nearly every aspect of theoretical physics since the middle of the twentieth century. Introduced by the American physicist Richard Feynman (1918-88) soon after World War II as a means of simplifying lengthy calculations in quantum electrodynamics, they soon gained adherents in many branches of the discipline. Yet as new physicists adopted the tiny line drawings, they also adapted the diagrams and introduced their own interpretations. Drawing Theories Apart traces how generations of young theorists learned to frame their research in terms of the diagrams—and how both the diagrams and their users were molded in the process. Drawing on rich archival materials, interviews, and more than five hundred scientific articles from the period, Drawing Theories Apart uses the Feynman diagrams as a means to explore the development of American postwar physics. By focusing on the ways young physicists learned new calculational skills, David Kaiser frames his story around the crafting and stabilizing of the basic tools in the physicist's kit—thus offering the first book to follow the diagrams once they left Feynman's hands and entered the physics vernacular.

Challenges And Goals For Accelerators In The Xxi Century

Author: Oliver Brüning
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814436410
Size: 26.62 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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' The past 100 years of accelerator-based research have led the field from first insights into the structure of atoms to the development and confirmation of the Standard Model of physics. Accelerators have been a key tool in developing our understanding of the elementary particles and the forces that govern their interactions. This book describes the past 100 years of accelerator development with a special focus on the technological advancements in the field, the connection of the various accelerator projects to key developments and discoveries in the Standard Model, how accelerator technologies open the door to other applications in medicine and industry, and finally presents an outlook of future accelerator projects for the coming decades. Contents:Introduction100 Years of Accelerators:Particle Accelerators in the XX Century: Lepton Accelerators for HEPParticle Accelerators in the XX Century: Hadron Accelerators for HEPParticle Accelerators in the XX Century: Asymmetric CollidersUnfulfilled DreamsLow Energy Accelerators: Nuclear PhysicsParticle Accelerators for the XXI Century:Particle Physics Accelerators in the XXI Century: Accelerators for HEP''Low Energy'' Accelerators: Rare Isotope Facilities in the XXI CenturyThe Quest for Power: High Power Proton Drivers in the XXI CenturyNovel Accelerator IdeasMedical Accelerators for Hadron Cancer Therapy Readership: Undergraduate students and professionals in accelerator physics. Key Features:Complete overview of past particle accelerator projectsDescription of LHC technology in time with the Higgs discoveryOutlook to potential future accelerator projects and applicationsSummary of medical applications for acceleratorsKeywords:Particle Accelerators;High Energy Physics;Accelerator Technology'

Charmed Particles

Author: Chrissy Kolaya
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781938103179
Size: 29.72 MB
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Set in a fictional prairie town in which the two overarching industries are a living history facility and a laboratory for experiments in high-energy particle physics,Charmed Particles tells the intertwined stories of two families. Abhijat is a theoretical physicist from India now working at the National Accelerator Research Laboratory. His wife, Sarala, home with their young daughter, Meena, struggles to assimilate to their new American culture. Meena’s best friend at school is Lily, a precocious child prodigy whose father self-identifies as "the last great gentleman explorer” and whose mother, a local politician, becomes entangled in efforts to stop to the National Accelerator Research Laboratory’s plans to build a new superconducting supercollider. The conflict over the collider fractures the community and creates deep divides within the families of the novel.

Dreams Of A Super Collider

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 27.50 MB
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Review of Tunnel Visions: The Rise and Fall of the Superconducting Supercollider, by Michael Riordan, Lillian Hoddeson, and Adrienne W. Kolb, University of Chicago Press, 2015.

Ultrasound In Gynecology

Author: Mala Sibal
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811027145
Size: 65.66 MB
Format: PDF
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This atlas and guide book is focused on gynecological ultrasound, an area that has remained in the shadow of obstetric ultrasound & fetal medicine. Gynecological ultrasound has seen rapid advances owing to expanding research and improved ultrasound equipment. This book leverages these advances and provides abundant illustrations and practice points of classical and new ultrasound features. It serves as a guide for radiologists, gynecologists and sonologists for the accurate diagnosis of gynecological pathologies. The chapters of this book also serve as a comprehensive resource for various topics with hundreds of images and figures, including basic gray scale images, Doppler studies and three dimensional ultrasound illustrations. In addition, standard terms for the evaluation and reporting of gynecological pathologies are discussed. Emergencies like ovarian torsion, complex adnexal cyst are also covered.

Superconductivity A Very Short Introduction

Author: Stephen Blundell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019954090X
Size: 19.81 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Superconductivity is one of the most exciting areas of research in physics today. Outlining the history of its discovery, and the race to understand its many mysterious phenomena, this Very Short Introduction also explores the deep implications of the theory, and its potential to revolutionize the physics and technology of the future.

Serving The Reich

Author: Philip Ball
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022620457X
Size: 25.85 MB
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After World War II, most scientists in Germany maintained that they had been apolitical or actively resisted the Nazi regime, but the true story is much more complicated. In Serving the Reich, Philip Ball takes a fresh look at that controversial history, contrasting the career of Peter Debye, director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics in Berlin, with those of two other leading physicists in Germany during the Third Reich: Max Planck, the elder statesman of physics after whom Germany’s premier scientific society is now named, and Werner Heisenberg, who succeeded Debye as director of the institute when it became focused on the development of nuclear power and weapons. Mixing history, science, and biography, Ball’s gripping exploration of the lives of scientists under Nazism offers a powerful portrait of moral choice and personal responsibility, as scientists navigated “the grey zone between complicity and resistance.” Ball’s account of the different choices these three men and their colleagues made shows how there can be no clear-cut answers or judgement of their conduct. Yet, despite these ambiguities, Ball makes it undeniable that the German scientific establishment as a whole mounted no serious resistance to the Nazis, and in many ways acted as a willing instrument of the state. Serving the Reich considers what this problematic history can tell us about the relationship of science and politics today. Ultimately, Ball argues, a determination to present science as an abstract inquiry into nature that is “above politics” can leave science and scientists dangerously compromised and vulnerable to political manipulation.