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Two Dimensional X Ray Diffraction

Author: Bob B. He
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119356067
Size: 39.48 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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An indispensable resource for researchers and students in materials science, chemistry, physics, and pharmaceuticals Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this updated and expanded edition of the definitive text in the field provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamentals of that analytical method, as well as state-of-the art experimental methods and applications. Geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis, and combinatorial screening are all covered in detail. Numerous experimental examples in materials research, manufacture, and pharmaceuticals are provided throughout. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction is the ideal, non-destructive analytical method for examining samples of all kinds including metals, polymers, ceramics, semiconductors, thin films, coatings, paints, biomaterials, composites, and more. Two-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction, Second Edition is an up-to-date resource for understanding how the latest 2D detectors are integrated into diffractometers, how to get the best data using the 2D detector for diffraction, and how to interpret this data. All those desirous of setting up a 2D diffraction in their own laboratories will find the author’s coverage of the physical principles, projection geometry, and mathematical derivations extremely helpful. Features new contents in all chapters with most figures in full color to reveal more details in illustrations and diffraction patterns Covers the recent advances in detector technology and 2D data collection strategies that have led to dramatic increases in the use of two-dimensional detectors for x-ray diffraction Provides in-depth coverage of new innovations in x-ray sources, optics, system configurations, applications and data evaluation algorithms Contains new methods and experimental examples in stress, texture, crystal size, crystal orientation and thin film analysis Two-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction, Second Edition is an important working resource for industrial and academic researchers and developers in materials science, chemistry, physics, pharmaceuticals, and all those who use x-ray diffraction as a characterization method. Users of all levels, instrument technicians and X-ray laboratory managers, as well as instrument developers, will want to have it on hand.

Strain And Dislocation Gradients From Diffraction

Author: Rozaliya Barabash
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1908979631
Size: 71.61 MB
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This book highlights emerging diffraction studies of strain and dislocation gradients with mesoscale resolution, which is currently a focus of research at laboratories around the world. While ensemble-average diffraction techniques are mature, grain and subgrain level measurements needed to understand real materials are just emerging. In order to understand the diffraction signature of different defects, it is necessary to understand the distortions created by the defects and the corresponding changes in the reciprocal space of the non-ideal crystals. Starting with a review of defect classifications based on their displacement fields, this book then provides connections between different dislocation arrangements, including geometrically necessary and statistically stored dislocations, and other common defects and the corresponding changes in the reciprocal space and diffraction patterns. Subsequent chapters provide an overview of microdiffraction techniques developed during the last decade to extract information about strain and dislocation gradients. X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly exciting application compared with alternative probes of local crystalline structure, orientation and defect density, because it is inherently non-destructive and penetrating.

Structural Biology Using Electrons And X Rays

Author: Michael F Moody
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080919454
Size: 64.40 MB
Format: PDF
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Structural Biology Using Electrons and X-Rays discusses the diffraction and image-based methods used for the determination of complex biological macromolecules. The book focuses on the Fourier transform theory, which is a mathematical function that is computed to transform signals between time and frequency domain. Composed of five parts, the book examines the development of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which allows the calculation of the images of a certain protein. Parts 1 to 4 provide the basic information and the applications of Fourier transforms, as well as the different methods used for image processing using X-ray crystallography and the analysis of electron micrographs. Part 5 focuses entirely on the mathematical aspect of Fourier transforms. In addition, the book examines detailed structural analyses of a specimen’s symmetry (i.e., crystals, helices, polyhedral viruses and asymmetrical particles). This book is intended for the biologist or biochemist who is interested in different methods and techniques for calculating the images of proteins using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It is also suitable for readers without a background in physical chemistry or mathematics. Emphasis on common principles underlying all diffraction-based methods Thorough grounding in theory requires understanding of only simple algebra Visual representations and explanations of challenging content Mathematical detail offered in short-course form to parallel the text

X Ray Diffraction For Materials Research

Author: Myeongkyu Lee
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315361973
Size: 65.67 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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X-ray diffraction is a useful and powerful analysis technique for characterizing crystalline materials commonly employed in MSE, physics, and chemistry. This informative new book describes the principles of X-ray diffraction and its applications to materials characterization. It consists of three parts. The first deals with elementary crystallography and optics, which is essential for understanding the theory of X-ray diffraction discussed in the second section of the book. Part 2 describes how the X-ray diffraction can be applied for characterizing such various forms of materials as thin films, single crystals, and powders. The third section of the book covers applications of X-ray diffraction. The book presents a number of examples to help readers better comprehend the subject. X-Ray Diffraction for Materials Research: From Fundamentals to Applications also • provides background knowledge of diffraction to enable nonspecialists to become familiar with the topics • covers the practical applications as well as the underlying principle of X-ray diffraction • presents appropriate examples with answers to help readers understand the contents more easily • includes thin film characterization by X-ray diffraction with relevant experimental techniques • presents a huge number of elaborately drawn graphics to help illustrate the content The book will help readers (students and researchers in materials science, physics, and chemistry) understand crystallography and crystal structures, interference and diffraction, structural analysis of bulk materials, characterization of thin films, and nondestructive measurement of internal stress and phase transition. Diffraction is an optical phenomenon and thus can be better understood when it is explained with an optical approach, which has been neglected in other books. This book helps to fill that gap, providing information to convey the concept of X-ray diffraction and how it can be applied to the materials analysis. This book will be a valuable reference book for researchers in the field and will work well as a good introductory book of X-ray diffraction for students in materials science, physics, and chemistry.

Three Dimensional X Ray Diffraction Microscopy

Author: Henning Friis Poulsen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540223306
Size: 21.69 MB
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Three-dimensional x-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscopy is a novel experimental method for structural characterisation of polycrystalline materials. The position, morphology, phase, strain and crystallographic orientation of hundreds of grains or sub-grain embedded within mm-cm thick specimens can be determined simultaneously. Furthermore, the dynamics of the individual structural elements can be monitored during typical processes such as deformation or annealing. The book gives a comprehensive account of the methodology followed by a summary of selected applications. The method is presented from a mathematical/crystallographic point-of-view but with sufficient hands-on details to enable the reader to plan his or her own experiments. The scope of applications includes work in materials science and engineering, geophysics, geology, chemistry and pharmaceutical science.

X Ray Diffraction Crystallography

Author: Yoshio Waseda
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642166358
Size: 31.88 MB
Format: PDF
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X-ray diffraction crystallography for powder samples is a well-established and widely used method. It is applied to materials characterization to reveal the atomic scale structure of various substances in a variety of states. The book deals with fundamental properties of X-rays, geometry analysis of crystals, X-ray scattering and diffraction in polycrystalline samples and its application to the determination of the crystal structure. The reciprocal lattice and integrated diffraction intensity from crystals and symmetry analysis of crystals are explained. To learn the method of X-ray diffraction crystallography well and to be able to cope with the given subject, a certain number of exercises is presented in the book to calculate specific values for typical examples. This is particularly important for beginners in X-ray diffraction crystallography. One aim of this book is to offer guidance to solving the problems of 90 typical substances. For further convenience, 100 supplementary exercises are also provided with solutions. Some essential points with basic equations are summarized in each chapter, together with some relevant physical constants and the atomic scattering factors of the elements.

Diffraction Analysis Of The Microstructure Of Materials

Author: Eric J. Mittemeijer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540405191
Size: 56.63 MB
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Overview of diffraction methods applied to the analysis of the microstructure of materials. Since crystallite size and the presence of lattice defects have a decisive influence on the properties of many engineering materials, information about this microstructure is of vital importance in developing and assessing materials for practical applications. The most powerful and usually non-destructive evaluation techniques available are X-ray and neutron diffraction. The book details, among other things, diffraction-line broadening methods for determining crystallite size and atomic-scale strain due, e.g. to dislocations, and methods for the analysis of residual (macroscale) stress. The book assumes only a basic knowledge of solid-state physics and supplies readers sufficient information to apply the methods themselves.

X Ray And Neutron Diffraction

Author: G. E. Bacon
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483158292
Size: 59.50 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction describes the developments of the X-ray and the various research done in neutron diffraction. Part I of the book concerns the principles and applications of the X-ray and neutrons through their origins from classical crystallography. The book explains the use of diffraction methods to show the highly regular arrangement of atoms that forms a continuous pattern in three-dimensional space. The text evaluates the limitations and benefits of using the different types of radiation sources, whether these are X-rays, neutrons, or electrons. Part II is a collection of reprints discussing the development of techniques that includes a modification of the Bragg method, which is a method of X-ray crystal analysis. One paper presents an improved numerical method of two-dimensional Fourier synthesis for crystals. This method uses a greatly reduced process of arrangement of sets of figures found in the two-dimensional Fourier series. The book also notes the theoretical considerations and the practical details, and then addresses precautions against possible inclusions of errors in this method. The text deals as well with the magnetic scattering of neutrons, and one paper presents a simple method of gathering information about the magnetic moment of the neutron besides the traditional Stern-Gerlach method. Nuclear scientists and physicists, atomic researchers, and nuclear engineers will greatly appreciate the book.

Structure Function Analysis Of Edible Fats

Author: Alejandro G. Marangoni
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128140429
Size: 20.82 MB
Format: PDF
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Structure-Function Analysis of Edible Fats, Second Edition summarizes the latest approaches in the quantification of the physical structure of fats and its relationship to macroscopic functionality. The book takes a proven, general approach, presenting principles and techniques in a way that can be applied to any lipidic material. As the maturity of the field has increased since the first edition, there is an increased need for more sophisticated quantitative approaches to common problems encountered by industry. This book outlines modern methods used for this purpose by some of the leading authorities in the field today. Edited by expert Alejandro Marangoni, and with contributions from leaders in field, the book features the latest developments, including chapters on Phase Behavior of Fat Mixtures and the Rheology and Mechanical Properties of Fats Methods Used in the Study of the Physical Properties of Fats (including a new section on microscopy). Fully revised and updated with 30% new content, including new chapters on Phase Behavior of Fat Mixtures, Rheology and Mechanical Properties of Fats, and Methods Used in the Study of the Physical Properties of Fats Includes a new section on microscopy Presents the principles behind X-ray diffraction, crystallization theory, and the mechanics of fats Provides theory for foundational understanding, examples for real-world insight, and tips for improving applied results