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Two Dimensional X Ray Diffraction

Author: Bob B. He
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118210751
Size: 51.64 MB
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Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to researchers in materials science, chemistry, physics, and pharmaceuticals, as well as graduate-level students in these areas.

Three Dimensional X Ray Diffraction Microscopy

Author: Henning Friis Poulsen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540223306
Size: 29.11 MB
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Three-dimensional x-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscopy is a novel experimental method for structural characterisation of polycrystalline materials. The position, morphology, phase, strain and crystallographic orientation of hundreds of grains or sub-grain embedded within mm-cm thick specimens can be determined simultaneously. Furthermore, the dynamics of the individual structural elements can be monitored during typical processes such as deformation or annealing. The book gives a comprehensive account of the methodology followed by a summary of selected applications. The method is presented from a mathematical/crystallographic point-of-view but with sufficient hands-on details to enable the reader to plan his or her own experiments. The scope of applications includes work in materials science and engineering, geophysics, geology, chemistry and pharmaceutical science.

Diffraction Analysis Of The Microstructure Of Materials

Author: Eric J. Mittemeijer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540405191
Size: 63.93 MB
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Overview of diffraction methods applied to the analysis of the microstructure of materials. Since crystallite size and the presence of lattice defects have a decisive influence on the properties of many engineering materials, information about this microstructure is of vital importance in developing and assessing materials for practical applications. The most powerful and usually non-destructive evaluation techniques available are X-ray and neutron diffraction. The book details, among other things, diffraction-line broadening methods for determining crystallite size and atomic-scale strain due, e.g. to dislocations, and methods for the analysis of residual (macroscale) stress. The book assumes only a basic knowledge of solid-state physics and supplies readers sufficient information to apply the methods themselves.

Powder Diffraction

Author: R E Dinnebier
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1782625992
Size: 56.98 MB
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Powder diffraction is a widely used scientific technique in the characterization of materials with broad application in materials science, chemistry, physics, geology, pharmacology and archaeology. Powder Diffraction: Theory and Practice provides an advanced introductory text about modern methods and applications of powder diffraction in research and industry. The authors begin with a brief overview of the basic theory of diffraction from crystals and powders. Data collection strategies are described including x-ray, neutron and electron diffraction setups using modern day apparatus including synchrotron sources. Data corrections, essential for quantitative analysis are covered before the authors conclude with a discussion of the analysis methods themselves. The information is presented in a way that facilitates understanding the information content of the data, as well as best practices for collecting and analyzing data for quantitative analysis. This long awaited book condenses the knowledge of renowned experts in the field into a single, authoritative, overview of the application of powder diffraction in modern materials research. The book contains essential theory and introductory material for students and researchers wishing to learn how to apply the frontier methods of powder diffraction

Nature S Versatile Engine

Author: Jim Vigoreaux
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387312132
Size: 50.68 MB
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Methods for Obtaining X-Ray Diffraction Patterns from Drosophila 198 Diffraction Patterns from Drosophila IFM 203 Concluding Remarks 211 Note Added in Proof 211 17. Functional and Ecological Effects of Isoform Variation in Insect Flight Muscle 214 James H. Marden Abstract 214 Introduction 215 Nature's Versatile Engine 215 The Underlying Genetics: An Underinflated Genome and a Hyperinflated Transcriptome and Proteome 216 Functional Effects of Isoform Variation 219 Alternative Splicing and the Generation of Combinatorial Complexity 220 Functional Consequences of Naturally Occurring Isoform Variation 220 18. Muscle Systems Design and Integration 230 Fritz- OlafLehmann Abstract 230 Power Requirements for Flight 230 Power Reduction 233 Power Constraints on Steering Capacity 234 Balancing Power and Control 236 Changes in Muscle Efficiency in Vivo 238 Concluding Remarks 239 From the Inside Out 19. Molecular Assays for Acto-Myosin Interactions 242 John C. Sparrow and Michael A. Geeves Abstract 242 Introduction 242 Myosin Purification and Preparation of the SI Fragment 243 Purification of Flight Muscle Actin 244 Assays of Myosin and Acto-Myosin 244 Major Conclusions Relating to the Enzymatic Properties of Insect Flight Muscle Acto-Myosin 247 Major Questions about Insect Flight Muscle Acto-Myosin Kinetics That Remain 249 20.

Nonrelativistic Quantum X Ray Physics

Author: Stefan P. Hau-Riege
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527664513
Size: 73.78 MB
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Providing a solid theoretical background in photon-matter interaction, Nonrelativistic Quantum X-Ray Physics enables readers to understand experiments performed at XFEL-facilities and x-ray synchrotrons. As a result, after reading this book, scientists and students will be able to outline and perform calculations of some important x-ray-matter interaction processes. Key features of the contents are that the scope reaches beyond the dipole approximation when necessary and that it includes short-pulse interactions. To aid the reader in this transition, some relevant examples are discussed in detail, while non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics help readers to obtain an in-depth understanding of the formalisms and processes. The text presupposes a basic (undergraduate-level) understanding of mechanics, electrodynamics, and quantum mechanics. However, more specialized concepts in these fields are introduced and the reader is directed to appropriate references. While primarily benefiting users of x-ray light-sources, the material is equally of relevance to researchers in various disciplines, such as life sciences, biology, materials science, physics, and chemistry that plan on applying these new facilities in their respective fields.