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Under Attack

Author: Belinda Helmke
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317005325
Size: 49.36 MB
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Under Attack makes a new contribution to the field of international relations in general and the study of international law and armed conflict in particular, in two core ways. First, it links information from varying disciplines, most notably international relations and international law, to form a comprehensive picture of state practice and the challenges it poses to the legal rules for the use of force. Secondly, it organises the information in such a way to identify two core groups of contemporary justifications used by states: humanitarian reasons and self-defence, both with their sub-categories. At the core of this book is the question of how state practice since 1990 has challenged the long-established legal regime on the international use of force. Are we merely witnessing a temporary and insignificant challenge to international law or are the rules genuinely under attack?

Institutionalizing State Responsibility

Author: Vincent-Joël Proulx
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191500011
Size: 13.62 MB
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Since the 9/11 attacks, international organizations have become actively engaged in devising counterterrorism strategies and frameworks. This monograph examines the role UN organs can play in implementing the law of State responsibility in global security contexts, using transnational terrorism as its principal case study. The institutional mechanisms utilized by the UN in implementing State responsibility are assessed in detail, shedding light on how the ICJ, the General Assembly and the Security Council contribute to the implementation of State responsibility in the context of global security. By acknowledging the Security Council's role as a post-9/11 legislator, this book argues that the Council can play an important and sometimes determinant role in implementing a State's legal responsibility for failing to prevent terrorism, both inside and outside the Chapter VII framework. Featuring a discussion of the more controversial consequences flowing from State responsibility, this monograph also explores the prospect of injured States adopting forcible measures against responsible States for their failures to prevent terrorism. The book investigates whether self-defence and other forcible reactions, envisaged both inside and outside the Council, can be reconciled with State responsibility principles.

Governing The Use Of Force In International Relations

Author: A. Warren
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 9781137411433
Size: 55.66 MB
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This book examines US recourse to military force in the post-9/11 era. In particular, it evaluates the extent to which the Bush and Obama administrations viewed legitimizing the greater use-of-force as a necessary solution to thwart the security threat presented by global terrorist networks and WMD proliferation.

Challenges In International Human Rights Law

Author: MennoT. Kamminga
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351572490
Size: 79.62 MB
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The main challenges within international human rights law are generally thought to be in the fields of transitional justice, non-state actors, terrorism, development, poverty and environmental degradation. This volume of articles not only covers these mainstream challenges but also a wider and more systematic range, including justiciability of social and economic rights, extraterritoriality, health care and investment arbitration. The key literature selected for this collection includes articles that have appeared in mainstream journals and books from leading publishers as well as papers that have appeared in lesser known journals, hard to find books and UN documents. Some of these are classic essays whilst others are more recent additions that reflect the current state of the debate. The papers are put into context by a specially commissioned introduction by the volume editor. This volume is an invaluable resource for human rights lawyers in search of the key literature in fields outside their own specialization as well as for students, researchers and lecturers seeking an overview of the challenges in human rights law.

Legal Aspects Of Combating Terrorism

Author: Centre of Excellence - Defence Against Terrorism
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 1607503778
Size: 24.65 MB
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This volume in the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series contains the papers of the Advanced Training Course (ATC) ‘Legal Aspects of Combating Terrorism’. The purpose of this course was to support NATO on defence issues related to terrorism and united experts from various disciplines to give participants an understanding of how the various dimensions of the laws and their application fit together. In addition to the lectures that can be found in this book, the course was divided into three modules: the legal response to terrorism in general terms; combating terrorism using lawful means; and harmonizing the Law of Armed Conflict (LAC), national laws and NATO in the fight against terrorism. One of the main questions dealt with in this work is whether, in the face of the new threat, terrorism should still be countered through the ordinary means of criminal law, or whether there should be a significant shift in enforcement methods, including a less multilateral approach to decision-making and an increased use of military force.

Recourse To Force

Author: Thomas M. Franck
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139434959
Size: 77.96 MB
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The nations that drafted the UN Charter in 1945 clearly were more concerned about peace than about justice. As a result, the Charter prohibits all use of force by states except in the event of an armed attack or when authorised by the Security Council. This arrangement has only very imperfectly withstood the test of time and changing world conditions. In requiring states not to use force in self-defence until after they had become the object of an actual armed attack, the Charter failed to address a growing phenomenon of clandestine subversion and of instantaneous nuclear threats. Fortunately although the Charter is very hard to amend, the drafters did agree that it should be interpreted flexibly by the United Nations' principal political institutions. In this way the norms governing use of force in international affairs have been adapted to meet changing circumstances and new challenges. The book also relates these changes in law and practice to changing public values pertaining to the balance between maintaining peace and promoting justice.

The Legality Of Threat Or Use Of Nuclear Weapons

Author: John Burroughs
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
ISBN: 9783825835163
Size: 58.96 MB
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" ""The threat or use of nuclear weapons would generally be contrary to the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, and in particular the principles and rules of humanitarian law ... There exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control."" - Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice, 8 July 1996 ""This book shows how courageous states from the developing world, working in concert with visionary lawyers, physicians and other sectors of international civil society, boldly obtained astonishing results from the highest court in the world. The World Court clearly ruled that the threat or use of nuclear weapons is illegal in almost all conceivable circumstances. The Court further underlined the unconditional obligation of the nuclear weapon states to begin and conclude negotiations on nuclear disarmament in all its aspects. It is now up to all of us to determine the follow-up, whatever the opposition. We cannot end this century without clear commitments and steps to eliminate nuclear weapons."" - Razali Ismail, Permanent Representative of Malaysia to the United Nations, President of the United Nations General Assembly, 1996-1997 ""It is not often that a judicial opinion on a given question is both hailed and criticized by participants on all sides of the question. This book, written by a leading member of the team that helped to prepare the case on the illegality of the threat and use of nuclear weapons, explains succinctly what the World Court, and the judges in their separate statements, did and did not say. In so doing, it makes a compelling case for the proposition that the Opinion represents a milestone on the road to nuclear abolition."" - Peter Weiss, Co-President, International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms The 20th century has been defined in large part by the unleashing of the terrible destructive power of the atom, and the subsequent struggle to overcome the threat of nuclear annihilation. If humankind survives, the 8 July 1996 Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice, and the extraordinary process that led up to it, will have played an essential role. The (Il)legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons is a concise yet thorough guide to the case. In straightforward language, it describes the history of this unprecedented initiative and summarizes and explains states' arguments to the Court, the Court's findings, and the separate statements of the judges. The author provides cogent expert analysis and, most importantly, reveals how the opinion imparts hope and points the way to the future: "" The Court has authoritatively interpreted law which states acknowledge they must follow, including humanitarian law protecting civilians from indiscriminate effects of warfare, the United Nations Charter, and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The implications are profound: abandonment of reliance on the threat and use of nuclear weapons as an instrument of national policy, and expeditious elimination of nuclear arsenals. The opinion can be cited as an authoritative statement of the law in any political or legal setting - including the United Nations and national courts and parliaments - in which nuclear weapon policies are challenged."" John Burroughs, an attorney for the Western States Legal Foundation in California, served as the legal coordinator for the World Court Project/International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms at the November 1995 hearings before the International Court of Justice. "

Changing International Law To Meet New Challenges

Author: Andreas Laursen
Publisher: Djoef Pub
ISBN:
Size: 28.66 MB
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The international rules governing the use of force in international relations have been under pressure in recent years. They have on several occasions been challenged by states' practice, be it through actual acts (for example, in the case of Kosovo 1999, Afghanistan 2001, and Iraq 2003) or in statements (such as the 2002 US National Security Strategy). A fundamental question concerns how international law reacts to such challenges. Does is disintegrate or does it adapt to the new circumstances? This book focuses on the intersection of two central and challenging issues in international law. The first concerns the ways in which such normative frameworks change, evolve, or are modified in international law. The second concerns the extent to which the basic norms governing the use of force against terrorists have changed significantly since the attacks on New York and Washington DC in 2001. The book examines the relationship between a treaty and subsequent challenging claims and acts by states. It is found that practice subsequent to a treaty may be central to the interpretation of the treaty or may in fact cause an informal modification of the treaty. In addition, the exact operation of subsequent practice is identified. A number of incidents involving the use of force against terrorists are described. These examples of state practice and the reactions are then analyzed in order to determine their effect on international law, in particular in the areas requiring state involvement, the definition of an armed attack, the issues of necessity and proportionality, and the state of necessity excuse. This book is the author's Ph.D. thesis that was submitted and defended at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy.

Technology And The Law On The Use Of Force

Author: Jackson Maogoto
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134445504
Size: 24.29 MB
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As governmental and non-governmental operations become progressively supported by vast automated systems and electronic data flows, attacks of government information infrastructure, operations and processes pose a serious threat to economic and military interests. In 2007 Estonia suffered a month long cyber assault to its digital infrastructure, described in cyberspace as ‘Web War I’. In 2010, a worm—Stuxnet—was identified as supervisory control and data acquisition systems at Iran’s uranium enrichment plant, presumably in an attempt to set back Iran’s nuclear programme. The dependence upon telecommunications and information infrastructures puts at risk Critical National Infrastructure, and is now at the core of national security interests. This book takes a detailed look at these new theatres of war and considers their relation to international law on the use of force. Except in cases of self-defence or with the authorisation of a Security Council Resolution, the use of force is prohibited under the UN charter and customary international law. However, the law of jus ad bellum was developed in a pre-digital era where current technological capabilities could not be conceived. Jackson Maogoto asks whether the law on the use of force is able to deal with legal disputes likely to arise from modern warfare. Key queries include how one defines an armed attack in an age of anti-satellite weaponry, whether the destruction of a State’s vital digital eco-system or the "blinding" of military communication satellites constitutes a threat, and how one delimits the threshold that would enliven the right of self-defence or retaliatory action. The book argues that while technology has leapt ahead, the legal framework has failed to adapt, rendering States unable to legally defend themselves effectively. The book will be of great interest and use to researchers and students of international law, the law of armed conflict, Information Technology and the law, and counter-terrorism.