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Understanding Affirmative Action

Author: J. Edward Kellough
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781589010895
Size: 65.24 MB
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For some time, the United States has been engaged in a national debate over affirmative action policy. A policy that began with the idea of creating a level playing field for minorities has sparked controversy in the workplace, in higher education, and elsewhere. After forty years, the debate still continues and the issues are as complex as ever. While most Americans are familiar with the term, they may not fully understand what affirmative action is and why it has become such a divisive issue. With this concise and up-to-date introduction, J. Edward Kellough brings together historical, philosophical, and legal analyses to fully inform participants and observers of this debate. Aiming to promote a more thorough knowledge of the issues involved, this book covers the history, legal status, controversies, and impact of affirmative action in both the private and public sectors -- and in education as well as employment. In addition, Kellough shows how the development and implementation of affirmative action policies have been significantly influenced by the nature and operation of our political institutions. Highlighting key landmarks in legislation and court decisions, he explains such concepts as "disparate impact," "diversity management," "strict scrutiny," and "representative bureaucracy." Understanding Affirmative Action probes the rationale for affirmative action, the different arguments against it, and the known impact it has had. Kellough concludes with a consideration of whether or not affirmative action will remain a useful tool for combating discrimination in the years to come. Not just for students in public administration and public policy, this handy volume will be a valuable resource for public administrators, human resource managers, and ordinary citizens looking for a balanced treatment of a controversial policy.

The Ironies Of Affirmative Action

Author: John David Skrentny
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226761787
Size: 18.38 MB
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Describes the origins of affirmative action in the conditions of the late 1960s and early 1970s, explains how it seemed to produce results when "color-blind" policies--which often allowed other inequalities--did not, and discusses its limitations and some

The Pursuit Of Fairness

Author: Terry H. Anderson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198035831
Size: 48.68 MB
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Affirmative action strikes at the heart of deeply held beliefs about employment and education, about fairness, and about the troubled history of race relations in America. Published on the 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, this is the only book available that gives readers a balanced, non-polemical, and lucid account of this highly contentious issue. Beginning with the roots of affirmative action, Anderson describes African-American demands for employment in the defense industry--spearheaded by A. Philip Randolph's threatened March on Washington in July 1941--and the desegregation of the armed forces after World War II. He investigates President Kennedy's historic 1961 executive order that introduced the term "affirmative action" during the early years of the civil rights movement and he examines President Johnson's attempts to gain equal opportunities for African Americans. He describes President Nixon's expansion of affirmative action with the Philadelphia Plan--which the Supreme Court upheld--along with President Carter's introduction of "set asides" for minority businesses and the Bakke ruling which allowed the use of race as one factor in college admissions. By the early 1980s many citizens were becoming alarmed by affirmative action, and that feeling was exemplified by the Reagan administration's backlash, which resulted in the demise and revision of affirmative action during the Clinton years. He concludes with a look at the University of Michigan cases of 2003, the current status of the policy, and its impact. Throughout, the author weighs each side of every issue--often finding merit in both arguments--resulting in an eminently fair account of one of America's most heated debates. A colorful history that brings to life the politicians, legal minds, and ordinary people who have fought for or against affirmative action, The Pursuit of Fairness helps clear the air and calm the emotions, as it illuminates a difficult and critically important issue.

Housing Segregation In Suburban America Since 1960

Author: Charles M. Lamb
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139444187
Size: 16.95 MB
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This book examines national fair housing policy from 1960 through 2000 in the context of the American presidency and the country's segregated suburban housing market. It argues that a principal reason for suburban housing segregation lies in Richard Nixon's 1971 fair housing policy, which directed Federal agencies not to place pressure on suburbs to accept low-income housing. After exploring the role played by Lyndon Johnson in the initiation and passage of the Fair Housing Act of 1968, Nixon's politics of suburban segregation is contrasted to the politics of suburban integration espoused by his HUD secretary, George Romney. Nixon's fair housing legacy is then traced through each presidential administration from Gerald Ford to Bill Clinton and detected in the decisions of Nixon's Federal Court appointees.

Affirmative Action Ethnicity And Conflict

Author: Edmund Terence Gomez
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415645069
Size: 46.54 MB
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In recent years a number of countries have introduced affirmative action programmes in order to put right historical injustices and economic inequalities involving ethnic communities. This book examines affirmative action programmes in a range of countries around the world. It discusses how such programmes came about and how they have been implemented, and examines their effectiveness. Throughout it explores how far affirmative action programmes reinforce ethnic identities and thereby contribute to division and conflict. The countries covered are India, the United States, South Africa, Northern Ireland, Brazil, Malaysia and Fiji.

The Case For Affirmative Action On Campus

Author: Eboni M. Zamani-Gallaher
Publisher: Stylus Publishing, LLC.
ISBN: 1579221033
Size: 30.33 MB
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Why is affirmative action under attack? What were the policys original purposes, and have they been achieved? What are the arguments being arrayed against it? Andfor all stakeholders concerned about equity and diversity on campus whats the way forward, politically, legally and practically? This book engages all these issues.

Religion And Politics In America An Encyclopedia Of Church And State In American Life 2 Volumes

Author: Frank J. Smith
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1598844369
Size: 72.97 MB
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There has always been an intricate relationship between religion and politics. This encyclopedia provides a comprehensive overview of the interrelation of religion and politics from colonial days to the present. • Enables readers to understand why religion and politics are necessarily interrelated • Demonstrates how today's heated controversies about the delicate balance between religious beliefs and government policies in America are not new but have existed since the foundation of the nation • Represents an ideal resource for students writing position papers regarding the separation of church and state (or lack of)

The Civil Rights Movement In America From Black Nationalism To The Women S Political Council

Author: Peter B. Levy
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1610697626
Size: 63.71 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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This single-volume work provides a concise, up-to-date, and reliable reference work that students, teachers, and general readers can turn to for a comprehensive overview of the civil rights movement—a period of time incorporating events that shaped today's society. • Includes primary documents such as the Brown v. Board of Education decision and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 accompanied by introductory essays that provide key historical context • Supplies entries on a broad cast of actors, ranging from Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X to Septima Clark, Virginia and Clifford Durr, Rosa Parks, and The Last Poets, thereby capturing the diversity of those who fought for racial equality • Provides sidebars and carefully selected images that bring this people's movement to life for high school readers—personal stories; descriptions of lesser-known individuals, organizations, and speeches; connections to popular culture; and maps of the freedom ride route

Affirmative Action And The University

Author: Kul B. Rai
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
ISBN: 9780803239340
Size: 79.77 MB
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Affirmative Action and the University is the only full-length study to examine the impact of affirmative action on all higher education hiring practices. Drawing onødata provided by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the U.S. Department of Education?s National Center for Education Statistics, the authors summarize, track, and evaluate changes in the gender and ethnic makeup of academic and nonacademic employees at private and public colleges and universities from the late 1970s through the mid-1990s. Separate chapters assess changes in employment opportunities for white women, blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The authors look at the extent to which a two-tier employment system exists. In such a system minorities and women are more likely to make their greatest gains in non-elite positions rather than in faculty and administrative positions. The authors also examine differences in hiring practices between public and private colleges and universities.