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Understanding Crime Statistics

Author: James P. Lynch
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139462628
Size: 16.28 MB
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In Understanding Crime Statistics, Lynch and Addington draw on the work of leading experts on U.S. crime statistics to provide much-needed research on appropriate use of this data. Specifically, the contributors explore the issues surrounding divergence in the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), which have been the two major indicators of the level and of the change in level of crime in the United States for the past 30 years. This book examines recent changes in the UCR and the NCVS and assesses the effect these have had on divergence. By focusing on divergence, the authors encourage readers to think about how these data systems filter the reality of crime. Understanding Crime Statistics builds on this discussion of divergence to explain how the two data systems can be used as they were intended - in complementary rather than competitive ways.

Handbook Of Quantitative Criminology

Author: Alex R. Piquero
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387776507
Size: 20.10 MB
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Quantitative criminology has certainly come a long way since I was ?rst introduced to a largely qualitative criminology some 40 years ago, when I was recruited to lead a task force on science and technology for the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. At that time, criminology was a very limited activity, depending almost exclusively on the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) initiated by the FBI in 1929 for measurement of crime based on victim reports to the police and on police arrests. A ty- cal mode of analysis was simple bivariate correlation. Marvin Wolfgang and colleagues were makingan importantadvancebytrackinglongitudinaldata onarrestsin Philadelphia,an in- vation that was widely appreciated. And the ?eld was very small: I remember attending my ?rst meeting of the American Society of Criminology in about 1968 in an anteroom at New York University; there were about 25–30 people in attendance, mostly sociologists with a few lawyers thrown in. That Society today has over 3,000 members, mostly now drawn from criminology which has established its own clear identity, but augmented by a wide variety of disciplines that include statisticians, economists, demographers, and even a few engineers. This Handbook provides a remarkable testimony to the growth of that ?eld. Following the maxim that “if you can’t measure it, you can’t understand it,” we have seen the early dissatisfaction with the UCR replaced by a wide variety of new approaches to measuring crime victimization and offending.

Risiken Der Sicherheitsgesellschaft

Author: Marcel Alexander Niggli
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3942865327
Size: 70.55 MB
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Die 13. Tagung der Kriminologischen Gesellschaft (KrimG) widmete sich dem Thema „Risiken der Sicherheitsgesellschaft – Sicherheit, Risiko und Kriminalpolitik“ und zog etwa 160 Teilneh-merinnen und Teilnehmer aus Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz nach Freiburg i. Üe. Die Thematik ist von höchst aktueller Relevanz, verschiebt sich doch der Fokus von der Repression hin zur Prävention, wobei sich die Grenzen zwischen Straf- und Polizei-, bzw. Straf- und Verwaltungsrecht zunehmend verwischen. Die Tagung bestand aus einer Mischung von Plenarvorträgen und Vorträgen in Panels, die das Spektrum der kriminologischen Forschungsfelder abdeckten. Von der Sanktionspraxis hin zu Polizei und Strafverfolgung, über Prävention und Ätiologie, Dunkelfeldbefragung in Deutschland 2012, Wirtschaftskriminalität, Strafvollzug sowie Jugend und Alter, Suizid, Sicherheitsgesellschaft und Kriminalpolitik, Massnahme- bzw. Massregelvollzug, Täter und Opfer, Umgang mit Unsicherheiten und Fehlern, Entlassung aus dem Vollzug und einzelnen Delikten. Der vorliegende Band enthält in etwa die Hälfte aller Beiträge (Plenar- und Panelvorträge), wobei die meisten der nun vorliegenden etwa 30 Vorträge für die Drucklegung überarbeitet wurden. Zudem finden sich im Band auch die Laudationes für die Beccaria-Preisträger.

21st Century Criminology A Reference Handbook

Author: J. Mitchell Miller
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412960193
Size: 45.33 MB
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21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook provides straightforward and definitive overviews of 100 key topics comprising traditional criminology and its modern outgrowths. The individual chapters have been designed to serve as a "first-look" reference source for most criminological inquires. Both connected to the sociological origins of criminology (i.e., theory and research methods) and the justice systems' response to crime and related social problems, as well as coverage of major crime types, this two-volume set offers a comprehensive overview of the current state of criminology. From student term papers and masters theses to researchers commencing literature reviews, 21st Century Criminology is a ready source from which to quickly access authoritative knowledge on a range of key issues and topics central to contemporary criminology.

The International Crime Drop

Author: Jan van Dijk
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 113729146X
Size: 46.67 MB
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Drawing on new studies from major European countries and Australia, this exciting collection extends the ongoing debate on falling crime rates from the perspective of criminal opportunity or routine activity theory. It analyses the effect of post WW2 crime booms which triggered a universal improvement in security across the Western world.

Crime And Public Policy

Author: James Q. Wilson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199315043
Size: 70.19 MB
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Crime in the United States has fluctuated considerably over the past thirty years, as have the policy approaches to deal with it. During this time criminologists and other scholars have helped to shed light on the role of incarceration, prevention, drugs, guns, policing, and numerous other aspects to crime control. Yet the latest research is rarely heard in public discussions and is often missing from the desks of policymakers. This book accessibly summarizes the latest scientific information on the causes of crime and evidence about what does and does not work to control it. Thoroughly revised and updated, this new version of Crime and Public Policy will include twenty chapters and five new substantial entries. As with previous editions, each essay reviews the existing literature, discusses the methodological rigor of the studies, identifies what policies and programs the studies suggest, and then points to policies now implemented that fail to reflect the evidence. The chapters cover the principle institutions of the criminal justice system (juvenile justice, police, prisons, probation and parole, sentencing), how broader aspects of social life inhibit or encourage crime (biology, schools, families, communities), and topics currently generating a great deal of attention (criminal activities of gangs, sex offenders, prisoner reentry, changing crime rates). With contributions from trusted, leading scholars, Crime and Public Policy offers the most comprehensive and balanced guide to how the latest and best social science research informs the understanding of crime and its control for policymakers, community leaders, and students of crime and criminal justice.

Surveying Crime In The 21st Century

Author: Michael G. Maxfield
Publisher: Criminal Justice Pr
Size: 77.87 MB
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Since its first sweep in 1982, the British Crime Survey - and its counterparts in the US and other nations - have become invaluable sources of data for research and policy development. In this book, chapters by a distinguished international group of scholars describe key findings of national crime surveys in a variety of research and policy areas, including:internationa comparisons of victimization;covariation of victimization and offending;the measurement of police performance;the impact of crime in different types of communities;attitudes to crime and justice;fear of crime; andthe unequal distribution of risk.Though national crime surveys have made substantial contributions to knowledge, according to the authors the surveys must adapt to changing circumstances if they are to continue to be of value. Future directions include continuing to incorporate new technology in samples and survey designs; broadening the focus beyond 'normal' crimes and individual victims; and producing better measures of crimes such as fraud, organized crime, corruption and Internet-facilitated crime.

Criminal Victimisation In International Perspective

Author: J. J. M. van Dijk
Publisher: Eleven International Pub
Size: 28.64 MB
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This report presents the key findings of the 2004/2005 International Crime Victims Survey (ICVS) together with the results of the European Survey on Crime and Safety (EU ICS). The surveys cover 30 countries and 33 capital or main cities. Where appropriate, the results are compared with those of the four earlier ICVS surveys, conducted in 1989, 1992, 1996 and 2000. The report presents data from the following 30 countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, England & Wales, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the USA. Also data from 33 main cities of a selection of developed and developing countries are presented including cities from Argentina, Brazil, Peru, South Africa, Hong Kong-China and Cambodia. The report shows how individual countries and cities compare with each other in relation to crime victimisation rates for ten types of common crimes including car theft, household burglary, robbery, assaults and sexual offences. Where possible, comparisons are also made regarding trends in crime over time in various countries. Besides, the levels of some non-conventional crimes such as corruption, internetbased fraud and hate crimes are addressed as well. The report also gives information on related topics such as reporting to the police, fear of crime, crime prevention measures and opinions about the police and sentencing.