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Understanding Mathematical Proof

Author: John Taylor
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781138466852
Size: 32.39 MB
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The notion of proof is central to mathematics yet it is one of the most difficult aspects of the subject to teach and master. In particular, undergraduate mathematics students often experience difficulties in understanding and constructing proofs. Understanding Mathematical Proof describes the nature of mathematical proof, explores the various techniques that mathematicians adopt to prove their results, and offers advice and strategies for constructing proofs. It will improve students� ability to understand proofs and construct correct proofs of their own. The first chapter of the text introduces the kind of reasoning that mathematicians use when writing their proofs and gives some example proofs to set the scene. The book then describes basic logic to enable an understanding of the structure of both individual mathematical statements and whole mathematical proofs. It also explains the notions of sets and functions and dissects several proofs with a view to exposing some of the underlying features common to most mathematical proofs. The remainder of the book delves further into different types of proof, including direct proof, proof using contrapositive, proof by contradiction, and mathematical induction. The authors also discuss existence and uniqueness proofs and the role of counter examples.

Das Buch Der Beweise

Author: Martin Aigner
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3662064545
Size: 23.14 MB
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Die elegantesten mathematischen Beweise, spannend und für jeden Interessierten verständlich. "Der Beweis selbst, seine Ästhetik, seine Pointe geht ins Geschichtsbuch der Königin der Wissenschaften ein. Ihre Anmut offenbart sich in dem gelungenen und geschickt illustrierten Buch." Die Zeit

Introduction To Advanced Mathematics A Guide To Understanding Proofs

Author: Connie M. Campbell
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1133168787
Size: 66.97 MB
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This text offers a crucial primer on proofs and the language of mathematics. Brief and to the point, it lays out the fundamental ideas of abstract mathematics and proof techniques that students will need to master for other math courses. Campbell presents these concepts in plain English, with a focus on basic terminology and a conversational tone that draws natural parallels between the language of mathematics and the language students communicate in every day. The discussion highlights how symbols and expressions are the building blocks of statements and arguments, the meanings they convey, and why they are meaningful to mathematicians. In-class activities provide opportunities to practice mathematical reasoning in a live setting, and an ample number of homework exercises are included for self-study. This text is appropriate for a course in Foundations of Advanced Mathematics taken by students who've had a semester of calculus, and is designed to be accessible to students with a wide range of mathematical proficiency. It can also be used as a self-study reference, or as a supplement in other math courses where additional proofs practice is needed. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Explanation And Proof In Mathematics

Author: Gila Hanna
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441905765
Size: 20.90 MB
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In the four decades since Imre Lakatos declared mathematics a "quasi-empirical science," increasing attention has been paid to the process of proof and argumentation in the field -- a development paralleled by the rise of computer technology and the mounting interest in the logical underpinnings of mathematics. Explanantion and Proof in Mathematics assembles perspectives from mathematics education and from the philosophy and history of mathematics to strengthen mutual awareness and share recent findings and advances in their interrelated fields. With examples ranging from the geometrists of the 17th century and ancient Chinese algorithms to cognitive psychology and current educational practice, contributors explore the role of refutation in generating proofs, the varied links between experiment and deduction, the use of diagrammatic thinking in addition to pure logic, and the uses of proof in mathematics education (including a critique of "authoritative" versus "authoritarian" teaching styles). A sampling of the coverage: The conjoint origins of proof and theoretical physics in ancient Greece. Proof as bearers of mathematical knowledge. Bridging knowing and proving in mathematical reasoning. The role of mathematics in long-term cognitive development of reasoning. Proof as experiment in the work of Wittgenstein. Relationships between mathematical proof, problem-solving, and explanation. Explanation and Proof in Mathematics is certain to attract a wide range of readers, including mathematicians, mathematics education professionals, researchers, students, and philosophers and historians of mathematics.

Making The Connection

Author: Marilyn Paula Carlson
Publisher: MAA
ISBN: 9780883851838
Size: 29.47 MB
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The chapters in this volume convey insights from mathematics education research that have direct implications for anyone interested in improving teaching and learning in undergraduate mathematics. This synthesis of research on learning and teaching mathematics provides relevant information for any math department or individual faculty member who is working to improve introductory proof courses, the longitudinal coherence of precalculus through differential equations, students' mathematical thinking and problem-solving abilities, and students' understanding of fundamental ideas such as variable and rate of change. Other chapters include information about programs that have been successful in supporting students' continued study of mathematics. The authors provide many examples and ideas to help the reader infuse the knowledge from mathematics education research into mathematics teaching practice. University mathematicians and community college faculty spend much of their time engaged in work to improve their teaching. Frequently, they are left to their own experiences and informal conversations with colleagues to develop new approaches to support student learning and their continuation in mathematics. Over the past 30 years, research in undergraduate mathematics education has produced knowledge about the development of mathematical understandings and models for supporting students' mathematical learning. Currently, very little of this knowledge is affecting teaching practice. We hope that this volume will open a meaningful dialogue between researchers and practitioners toward the goal of realizing improvements in undergraduate mathematics curriculum and instruction.

The Foundations Of Mathematics

Author: Ian Stewart
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191016489
Size: 49.23 MB
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The transition from school mathematics to university mathematics is seldom straightforward. Students are faced with a disconnect between the algorithmic and informal attitude to mathematics at school, versus a new emphasis on proof, based on logic, and a more abstract development of general concepts, based on set theory. The authors have many years' experience of the potential difficulties involved, through teaching first-year undergraduates and researching the ways in which students and mathematicians think. The book explains the motivation behind abstract foundational material based on students' experiences of school mathematics, and explicitly suggests ways students can make sense of formal ideas. This second edition takes a significant step forward by not only making the transition from intuitive to formal methods, but also by reversing the process- using structure theorems to prove that formal systems have visual and symbolic interpretations that enhance mathematical thinking. This is exemplified by a new chapter on the theory of groups. While the first edition extended counting to infinite cardinal numbers, the second also extends the real numbers rigorously to larger ordered fields. This links intuitive ideas in calculus to the formal epsilon-delta methods of analysis. The approach here is not the conventional one of 'nonstandard analysis', but a simpler, graphically based treatment which makes the notion of an infinitesimal natural and straightforward. This allows a further vision of the wider world of mathematical thinking in which formal definitions and proof lead to amazing new ways of defining, proving, visualising and symbolising mathematics beyond previous expectations.

Deepening Our Understanding Of Wittgenstein

Author: Michael Kober
Publisher: Rodopi
ISBN: 9042020105
Size: 41.46 MB
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This volume is of interest for anyone who aims at understanding the so-called 'later' or 'mature' Wittgenstein. Its contributions, written by leading German-speaking Wittgenstein-scholars like Hans Sluga, Hans-Johann Glock, Joachim Schulte, Eike von Savigny, and others, provide deeper insights to seemingly well discussed topics, such as family resemblance, Übersicht (perspicuous representation), religion, or grammar, or they explain in an eye-opening fashion hitherto enigmatic expressions of Wittgenstein, such as 'The pneumatic conception of thought' (PI §109), 'A mathematical proof must be surveyable' (RFM III §1), or 'On this a curious remark by H. Newman' (OC §1).

Understanding In Mathematics

Author: Anna Sierpinska
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135716323
Size: 26.78 MB
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The concept of understanding in mathematics with regard to mathematics education is considered in this volume. The main problem for mathematics teachers being how to facilitate their students' understanding of the mathematics being taught. In combining elements of maths, philosophy, logic, linguistics and the psychology of maths education from her own and European research, Dr Sierpinska considers the contributions of the social and cultural contexts to understanding. The outcome is an insight into both mathematics and understanding.

Aspects Of Teaching Secondary Mathematics

Author: Linda Haggarty
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134500963
Size: 61.83 MB
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If learners in the classroom are to be excited by mathematics, teachers need to be both well informed about current initiatives and able to see how what is expected of them can be translated into rich and stimulating classroom strategies. The book examines current initiatives that affect teaching mathematics and identifies pointers for action in the classroom. Divided into three major sections, it looks at: the changing mathematics classroom at primary, secondary and tertiary level major components of the secondary curriculum practical pedagogical issues of particular concern to mathematics teachers. Each issue is explores in terms of major underpinnings and research in that area, and practical ideas can be drawn from the text and implemented in the reader's classroom practice. Each chapter has been written by a well-respected writer, researcher and practitioner in their field and all share a common goal: to look thoughtfully and intelligently at some of the practical issues facing mathematics teachers and offer their perspectives on those issues.

Mathematics Rebooted

Author: Lara Alcock
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019252593X
Size: 26.21 MB
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Would you like to understand more mathematics? Many people would. Perhaps at school you liked mathematics for a while but were then put off because you missed a key idea and kept getting stuck. Perhaps you always liked mathematics but gave it up because your main interest was music or languages or science or philosophy. Or perhaps you studied mathematics to advanced levels, but have now forgotten most of what you once knew. Whichever is the case, this book is for you. It aims to build on what you know, revisiting basic ideas with a focus on meaning. Each chapter starts with an idea from school mathematics - often primary school mathematics - and gradually builds up a network of links to more advanced material. It explores fundamental ideas in depth, using insights from research in mathematics education and psychology to explain why people often get confused, and how to overcome that confusion. For nervous readers, it will build confidence by clarifying basic ideas. For more experienced readers, it will highlight new connections to more advanced material. Throughout, the book explains how mathematicians think, and how ordinary people can understand and enjoy mathematical ideas and arguments. If you would like to be better informed about the intrinsic elegance of mathematics, this engaging guide is the place to start.