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Understanding Mathematical Proof

Author: John Taylor
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466514914
Size: 58.56 MB
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The notion of proof is central to mathematics yet it is one of the most difficult aspects of the subject to teach and master. In particular, undergraduate mathematics students often experience difficulties in understanding and constructing proofs. Understanding Mathematical Proof describes the nature of mathematical proof, explores the various techniques that mathematicians adopt to prove their results, and offers advice and strategies for constructing proofs. It will improve students’ ability to understand proofs and construct correct proofs of their own. The first chapter of the text introduces the kind of reasoning that mathematicians use when writing their proofs and gives some example proofs to set the scene. The book then describes basic logic to enable an understanding of the structure of both individual mathematical statements and whole mathematical proofs. It also explains the notions of sets and functions and dissects several proofs with a view to exposing some of the underlying features common to most mathematical proofs. The remainder of the book delves further into different types of proof, including direct proof, proof using contrapositive, proof by contradiction, and mathematical induction. The authors also discuss existence and uniqueness proofs and the role of counter examples.

Explanation And Proof In Mathematics

Author: Gila Hanna
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441905765
Size: 51.86 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In the four decades since Imre Lakatos declared mathematics a "quasi-empirical science," increasing attention has been paid to the process of proof and argumentation in the field -- a development paralleled by the rise of computer technology and the mounting interest in the logical underpinnings of mathematics. Explanantion and Proof in Mathematics assembles perspectives from mathematics education and from the philosophy and history of mathematics to strengthen mutual awareness and share recent findings and advances in their interrelated fields. With examples ranging from the geometrists of the 17th century and ancient Chinese algorithms to cognitive psychology and current educational practice, contributors explore the role of refutation in generating proofs, the varied links between experiment and deduction, the use of diagrammatic thinking in addition to pure logic, and the uses of proof in mathematics education (including a critique of "authoritative" versus "authoritarian" teaching styles). A sampling of the coverage: The conjoint origins of proof and theoretical physics in ancient Greece. Proof as bearers of mathematical knowledge. Bridging knowing and proving in mathematical reasoning. The role of mathematics in long-term cognitive development of reasoning. Proof as experiment in the work of Wittgenstein. Relationships between mathematical proof, problem-solving, and explanation. Explanation and Proof in Mathematics is certain to attract a wide range of readers, including mathematicians, mathematics education professionals, researchers, students, and philosophers and historians of mathematics.

Das Buch Der Beweise

Author: Martin Aigner
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3662577674
Size: 79.47 MB
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Diese fünfte deutsche Auflage enthält ein ganz neues Kapitel über van der Waerdens Permanenten-Vermutung, sowie weitere neue, originelle und elegante Beweise in anderen Kapiteln. Aus den Rezensionen: “... es ist fast unmöglich, ein Mathematikbuch zu schreiben, das von jedermann gelesen und genossen werden kann, aber Aigner und Ziegler gelingt diese Meisterleistung in virtuosem Stil. [...] Dieses Buch erweist der Mathematik einen unschätzbaren Dienst, indem es Nicht-Mathematikern vorführt, was Mathematiker meinen, wenn sie über Schönheit sprechen.” Aus der Laudatio für den “Steele Prize for Mathematical Exposition” 2018 "Was hier vorliegt ist eine Sammlung von Beweisen, die in das von Paul Erdös immer wieder zitierte BUCH gehören, das vom lieben (?) Gott verwahrt wird und das die perfekten Beweise aller mathematischen Sätze enthält. Manchmal lässt der Herrgott auch einige von uns Sterblichen in das BUCH blicken, und die so resultierenden Geistesblitze erhellen den Mathematikeralltag mit eleganten Argumenten, überraschenden Zusammenhängen und unerwarteten Volten." www.mathematik.de, Mai 2002 "Eine einzigartige Sammlung eleganter mathematischer Beweise nach der Idee von Paul Erdös, verständlich geschrieben von exzellenten Mathematikern. Dieses Buch gibt anregende Lösungen mit Aha-Effekt, auch für Nicht-Mathematiker." www.vismath.de "Ein prächtiges, äußerst sorgfältig und liebevoll gestaltetes Buch! Erdös hatte die Idee DES BUCHES, in dem Gott die perfekten Beweise mathematischer Sätze eingeschrieben hat. Das hier gedruckte Buch will eine "very modest approximation" an dieses BUCH sein.... Das Buch von Aigner und Ziegler ist gelungen ..." Mathematische Semesterberichte, November 1999 "Wer (wie ich) bislang vergeblich versucht hat, einen Blick ins BUCH zu werfen, wird begierig in Aigners und Zieglers BUCH der Beweise schmökern." www.mathematik.de, Mai 2002

Introduction To Advanced Mathematics A Guide To Understanding Proofs

Author: Connie M. Campbell
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1133168787
Size: 51.51 MB
Format: PDF
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This text offers a crucial primer on proofs and the language of mathematics. Brief and to the point, it lays out the fundamental ideas of abstract mathematics and proof techniques that students will need to master for other math courses. Campbell presents these concepts in plain English, with a focus on basic terminology and a conversational tone that draws natural parallels between the language of mathematics and the language students communicate in every day. The discussion highlights how symbols and expressions are the building blocks of statements and arguments, the meanings they convey, and why they are meaningful to mathematicians. In-class activities provide opportunities to practice mathematical reasoning in a live setting, and an ample number of homework exercises are included for self-study. This text is appropriate for a course in Foundations of Advanced Mathematics taken by students who've had a semester of calculus, and is designed to be accessible to students with a wide range of mathematical proficiency. It can also be used as a self-study reference, or as a supplement in other math courses where additional proofs practice is needed. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Mathematical Reasoning

Author: Ted Sundstrom
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781500143411
Size: 47.23 MB
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Mathematical Reasoning: Writing and Proof is a text for the ?rst college mathematics course that introduces students to the processes of constructing and writing proofs and focuses on the formal development of mathematics. The primary goals of the text are to help students: Develop logical thinking skills and to develop the ability to think more abstractly in a proof oriented setting; develop the ability to construct and write mathematical proofs using standard methods of mathematical proof including direct proofs, proof by contradiction, mathematical induction, case analysis, and counterexamples; develop the ability to read and understand written mathematical proofs; develop talents for creative thinking and problem solving; improve their quality of communication in mathematics. This includes improving writing techniques, reading comprehension, and oral communication in mathematics; better understand the nature of mathematics and its language. Another important goal of this text is to provide students with material that will be needed for their further study of mathematics. Important features of the book include: Emphasis on writing in mathematics; instruction in the process of constructing proofs; emphasis on active learning.There are no changes in content between Version 2.0 and previous versions of the book. The only change is that the appendix with answers and hints for selected exercises now contains solutions and hints for more exercises.

100 Mathematical Proof

Author: Rowan Garnier
Publisher: John Wiley & Son Ltd
ISBN: 9780471961994
Size: 50.89 MB
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Proof" has been & remains one of the concepts which characterises mathematics. Covering basic propositional & predicate logic as well as discussing axiom systems & formal proofs, the book seeks to explain what mathematicians understand by proofs & how they are communicated. The authors explore the principle techniques of direct & indirect proof including induction, existence & uniqueness proofs, proof by contradiction, constructive & non-constructive proofs, etc. Many examples from analysis & modern algebra are included. The exceptionally clear style & presentation ensures that the book will be useful & enjoyable to those studying & interested in the notion of mathematical "proof.

Making The Connection

Author: Marilyn Paula Carlson
Publisher: MAA
ISBN: 9780883851838
Size: 68.21 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The chapters in this volume convey insights from mathematics education research that have direct implications for anyone interested in improving teaching and learning in undergraduate mathematics. This synthesis of research on learning and teaching mathematics provides relevant information for any math department or individual faculty member who is working to improve introductory proof courses, the longitudinal coherence of precalculus through differential equations, students' mathematical thinking and problem-solving abilities, and students' understanding of fundamental ideas such as variable and rate of change. Other chapters include information about programs that have been successful in supporting students' continued study of mathematics. The authors provide many examples and ideas to help the reader infuse the knowledge from mathematics education research into mathematics teaching practice. University mathematicians and community college faculty spend much of their time engaged in work to improve their teaching. Frequently, they are left to their own experiences and informal conversations with colleagues to develop new approaches to support student learning and their continuation in mathematics. Over the past 30 years, research in undergraduate mathematics education has produced knowledge about the development of mathematical understandings and models for supporting students' mathematical learning. Currently, very little of this knowledge is affecting teaching practice. We hope that this volume will open a meaningful dialogue between researchers and practitioners toward the goal of realizing improvements in undergraduate mathematics curriculum and instruction.

The Foundations Of Mathematics

Author: Ian Stewart
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191016489
Size: 58.39 MB
Format: PDF
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The transition from school mathematics to university mathematics is seldom straightforward. Students are faced with a disconnect between the algorithmic and informal attitude to mathematics at school, versus a new emphasis on proof, based on logic, and a more abstract development of general concepts, based on set theory. The authors have many years' experience of the potential difficulties involved, through teaching first-year undergraduates and researching the ways in which students and mathematicians think. The book explains the motivation behind abstract foundational material based on students' experiences of school mathematics, and explicitly suggests ways students can make sense of formal ideas. This second edition takes a significant step forward by not only making the transition from intuitive to formal methods, but also by reversing the process- using structure theorems to prove that formal systems have visual and symbolic interpretations that enhance mathematical thinking. This is exemplified by a new chapter on the theory of groups. While the first edition extended counting to infinite cardinal numbers, the second also extends the real numbers rigorously to larger ordered fields. This links intuitive ideas in calculus to the formal epsilon-delta methods of analysis. The approach here is not the conventional one of 'nonstandard analysis', but a simpler, graphically based treatment which makes the notion of an infinitesimal natural and straightforward. This allows a further vision of the wider world of mathematical thinking in which formal definitions and proof lead to amazing new ways of defining, proving, visualising and symbolising mathematics beyond previous expectations.