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Virus As Populations

Author: Esteban Domingo
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128009942
Size: 57.83 MB
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Virus as Populations: Composition, Complexity, Dynamics, and Biological Implications explains fundamental concepts that arise from regarding viruses as complex populations when replicating in infected hosts. Fundamental phenomena in virus behavior, such as adaptation to changing environments, capacity to produce disease, probability to be transmitted or response to treatment, depend on virus population numbers and in the variations of such population numbers. Concepts such as quasispecies dynamics, mutations rates, viral fitness, the effect of bottleneck events, population numbers in virus transmission and disease emergence, new antiviral strategies such as lethal mutagenesis, and extensions of population heterogeneity to nonviral systems are included. These main concepts of the book are framed in recent observations on general virus diversity derived from metagenomic studies, and current views on the origin of viruses and the role of viruses in the evolution of the biosphere. Features current views on the key steps in the origin of life and origins of viruses Includes examples relating ancestral features of viruses with their current adaptive capacity Explains complex phenomena in an organized and coherent fashion that is easy to comprehend and enjoyable to read Considers quasispecies as a framework to understand virus adaptability and disease processes

Foot And Mouth Disease Virus

Author: Francisco Sobrino
Publisher: Caister Academic Press
ISBN: 1910190527
Size: 21.98 MB
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Fifteen years after the devastating 2001 European foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak, the virus causing that shocking episode continues to pose a major threat to animal health worldwide. The development of more effective, sustainable and socially acceptable disease control measures remains a key task. This volume provides essential scientific background on FMD and its etiological agent, FMD virus, as well as comprehensive, interdisciplinary and up-to-date information on basic research findings and applied developments contributing to FMD control. The eighteen chapters have been written by leading FMD researchers. Topics include genome organization, translation and replication, virus-coded proteinases, structure of virus particles, cell receptors and host range, the RNA polymerase, quasispecies dynamics and virus evolution, innate and acquired immune responses, and the clinical signs of FMD and its natural habitats. Further chapters deal with various aspects of disease control such as diagnosis, current and new vaccines, antivirals and models of epidemiology. The role of international organizations in FMD control and the impact of FMDV as a re-emergent virus are also addressed. The book is required reading for everyone involved in FMD and is an important acquisition for all microbiology libraries.

Origin And Evolution Of Viruses

Author: Esteban Domingo
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080564968
Size: 67.19 MB
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New viral diseases are emerging continuously. Viruses adapt to new environments at astounding rates. Genetic variability of viruses jeopardizes vaccine efficacy. For many viruses mutants resistant to antiviral agents or host immune responses arise readily, for example, with HIV and influenza. These variations are all of utmost importance for human and animal health as they have prevented us from controlling these epidemic pathogens. This book focuses on the mechanisms that viruses use to evolve, survive and cause disease in their hosts. Covering human, animal, plant and bacterial viruses, it provides both the basic foundations for the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and specific examples of emerging diseases. * NEW - methods to establish relationships among viruses and the mechanisms that affect virus evolution * UNIQUE - combines theoretical concepts in evolution with detailed analyses of the evolution of important virus groups * SPECIFIC - Bacterial, plant, animal and human viruses are compared regarding their interation with their hosts

Quasispecies Concept And Implications For Virology

Author: Esteban Domingo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540263977
Size: 72.55 MB
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Continuous genetic variation and selection of virus subpopulations in the course of RNA virus replications are intimately related to viral disease mechanisms. The central topics of this volume are the origins of the quasispecies concept, and the implications of quasispecies dynamics for viral populations.

Progress In Drug Research

Author: Hao Wu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783764369873
Size: 51.18 MB
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Progress in Drug Research is a prestigious book series which provides extensive expert-written reviews on a wide spectrum of highly topical areas in current pharmaceutical and pharmacological research. It serves as an important source of information for researchers concerned with drug research and all those who need to keep abreast of the many recent developments in the quest for new and better medicines.

Aging In Sub Saharan Africa

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309180092
Size: 72.18 MB
Format: PDF
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In sub-Saharan Africa, older people make up a relatively small fraction of the total population and are supported primarily by family and other kinship networks. They have traditionally been viewed as repositories of information and wisdom, and are critical pillars of the community but as the HIV/AIDS pandemic destroys family systems, the elderly increasingly have to deal with the loss of their own support while absorbing the additional responsibilities of caring for their orphaned grandchildren. Aging in Sub-Saharan Africa explores ways to promote U.S. research interests and to augment the sub-Saharan governments' capacity to address the many challenges posed by population aging. Five major themes are explored in the book such as the need for a basic definition of "older person," the need for national governments to invest more in basic research and the coordination of data collection across countries, and the need for improved dialogue between local researchers and policy makers. This book makes three major recommendations: 1) the development of a research agenda 2) enhancing research opportunity and implementation and 3) the translation of research findings.

Encyclopedia Of Cell Biology

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123947960
Size: 72.28 MB
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The Encyclopedia of Cell Biology offers a broad overview of cell biology, offering reputable, foundational content for researchers and students across the biological and medical sciences. This important work includes 285 articles from domain experts covering every aspect of cell biology, with fully annotated figures, abundant illustrations, videos, and references for further reading. Each entry is built with a layered approach to the content, providing basic information for those new to the area and more detailed material for the more experienced researcher. With authored contributions by experts in the field, the Encyclopedia of Cell Biology provides a fully cross-referenced, one-stop resource for students, researchers, and teaching faculty across the biological and medical sciences. Fully annotated color images and videos for full comprehension of concepts, with layered content for readers from different levels of experience Includes information on cytokinesis, cell biology, cell mechanics, cytoskeleton dynamics, stem cells, prokaryotic cell biology, RNA biology, aging, cell growth, cell Injury, and more In-depth linking to Academic Press/Elsevier content and additional links to outside websites and resources for further reading A one-stop resource for students, researchers, and teaching faculty across the biological and medical sciences

The Picornaviruses

Author: Ellie Ehrenfeld
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Press
ISBN: 1555816037
Size: 14.96 MB
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A springboard for developing new approaches to understanding, preventing, and treating picornaviral diseases. • Examines the most current breakthroughs as well as the challenges that lie ahead in picornavirus research; encapsulates current knowledge of the molecular biology, evolution, and pathogenesis of this large family of viruses; and, examines the diseases that these viruses cause and the latest vaccines and antiviral drugs to prevent and control those diseases. • Explores the structural and mechanistic bases of picornavirus replication, highlighting new insights about the host cell interactions needed for virus growth; and, illustrates how the regular occurrence of mutations, typical of viruses with RNA as genetic material, generates the quasispecies dynamics that underlie viral fitness. • Focuses on picornaviruses that cause disease, examining pathogenicity and innate and acquired immune responses against infection as well as the latest vaccine and antiviral drug strategies.

Quasispecies From Theory To Experimental Systems

Author: Esteban Domingo
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319238981
Size: 36.54 MB
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This volume brings together recent developments in quasispecies theory extended to variable environments and practical applications in elucidating viral dynamics and treatment designs. In particular, the existence of an error threshold in rugged fitness landscapes has opened the way to a new antiviral strategy termed lethal mutagenesis, which is now under intensive theoretical, experimental and clinical investigation. As such the book explains how an understanding of quasispecies dynamics within infected organisms has increased our knowledge of viral disease events. From a clinical perspective, population dynamics highlights important problems for viral disease control, such as the selection of drug-resistant mutants that often accompanies treatment failures, and suggests means of increasing the effectiveness of antiviral treatments. The book is intended for students and scientists interested in basic and applied aspects of biophysics, chemistry, biology, evolution and medical virology.