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Water For Energy And Fuel Production

Author: Yatish T. Shah
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482216191
Size: 44.92 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Water, in all its forms, may be the key to an environmentally friendly energy economy. Water is free, there is plenty of it, plus it carries what is generally believed to be the best long-term source of green energy—hydrogen. Water for Energy and Fuel Production explores the many roles of water in the energy and fuel industry. The text not only discusses water’s use as a direct source of energy and fuel—such as hydrogen from water dissociation, methane from water-based clathrate molecules, hydroelectric dams, and hydrokinetic energy from tidal waves, off-shore undercurrents, and inland waterways—but also: Describes water’s benign application in the production of oil, gas, coal, uranium, biomass, and other raw fuels, and as an energy carrier in the form of hot water and steam Examines water’s role as a reactant, reaction medium, and catalyst—as well as steam’s role as a reactant—for the conversion of raw fuels to synthetic fuels Explains how supercritical water can be used to convert fossil- and bio-based feedstock to synthetic fuels in the presence and absence of a catalyst Employing illustrative case studies and commercial examples, Water for Energy and Fuel Production demonstrates the versatility of water as a provider of energy and fuel, conveying the message that as energy demand and environmental concerns grow, so should our vigilance in pursuing the role of water in the energy landscape.

Water For Energy And Fuel Production

Author: Yatish T. Shah
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482216183
Size: 41.93 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 1252
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Water, in all its forms, may be the key to an environmentally friendly energy economy. Water is free, there is plenty of it, plus it carries what is generally believed to be the best long-term source of green energy—hydrogen. Water for Energy and Fuel Production explores the many roles of water in the energy and fuel industry. The text not only discusses water’s use as a direct source of energy and fuel—such as hydrogen from water dissociation, methane from water-based clathrate molecules, hydroelectric dams, and hydrokinetic energy from tidal waves, off-shore undercurrents, and inland waterways—but also: Describes water’s benign application in the production of oil, gas, coal, uranium, biomass, and other raw fuels, and as an energy carrier in the form of hot water and steam Examines water’s role as a reactant, reaction medium, and catalyst—as well as steam’s role as a reactant—for the conversion of raw fuels to synthetic fuels Explains how supercritical water can be used to convert fossil- and bio-based feedstock to synthetic fuels in the presence and absence of a catalyst Employing illustrative case studies and commercial examples, Water for Energy and Fuel Production demonstrates the versatility of water as a provider of energy and fuel, conveying the message that as energy demand and environmental concerns grow, so should our vigilance in pursuing the role of water in the energy landscape.

Carbon Neutral Fuels And Energy Carriers

Author: Nazim Z. Muradov
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439818584
Size: 56.61 MB
Format: PDF
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Concerns over an unstable energy supply and the adverse environmental impact of carbonaceous fuels have triggered considerable efforts worldwide to find carbon-free or low-carbon alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Carbon-Neutral Fuels and Energy Carriers emphasizes the vital role of carbon-neutral energy sources, transportation fuels, and associated technologies for establishing a sustainable energy future. Each chapter draws on the insight of world-renowned experts in such diverse fields as photochemistry and electrochemistry, solar and nuclear energy, biofuels and synthetic fuels, carbon sequestration, and alternative fuel vehicles. After an introductory chapter on different energy options in a carbon-constrained world and proposed measures to stabilize atmospheric CO2, the book analyzes the advantages and challenges facing the introduction of hydrogen fuel to the marketplace. It then examines the role of nuclear power in the production of carbon-free energy and fuels as well as the efficient use and storage of renewable energy resources, emphasizing the production of solar fuels from water and CO2. The book also discusses different aspects of bioenergy and biofuels production and use and the potential role of bio-inspired energy systems and industrial processes. The final chapters present a thorough overview and analysis of state-of-the-art fossil fuel decarbonization technologies and clean transportation options. This authoritative work provides the information needed to make more informed choices regarding available clean energy and fuel alternatives. It helps readers to better understand the interconnection between energy and the environment as well as the potential impact of human activities on climate.

The Water Food Energy Nexus

Author: I. M. Mujtaba
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351649248
Size: 42.92 MB
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Exponential growth of the worldwide population requires increasing amounts of water, food, and energy. However, as the quantity of available fresh water and energy sources directly affecting cost of food production and transportation diminishes, technological solutions are necessary to secure sustainable supplies. In direct response to this reality, this book focuses on the water-energy-food nexus and describes in depth the challenges and processes involved in efficient water and energy production and management, wastewater treatment, and impact upon food and essential commodities. The book is organized into 4 sections on water, food, energy, and the future of sustainability, highlighting the interplay among these topics. The first section emphasizes water desalination, water management, and wastewater treatment. The second section discusses cereal processing, sustainable food security, bioenergy in food production, water and energy consumption in food processing, and mathematical modeling for food undergoing phase changes. The third section discusses fossil fuels, biofuels, synthetic fuels, renewable energy, and carbon capture. Finally, the book concludes with a discussion of the future of sustainability, including coverage of the role of molecular thermodynamics in developing processes and products, green engineering in process systems, petrochemical water splitting, petrochemical approaches to solar hydrogen generation, design and operation strategy of energy-efficient processes, and the sustainability of process, supply chain, and enterprise.

The Role Of Green Chemistry In Biomass Processing And Conversion

Author: Haibo Xie
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111844941X
Size: 31.57 MB
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Sets the stage for the development of sustainable, environmentally friendly fuels, chemicals, and materials Taking millions of years to form, fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources; it is estimated that they will be depleted by the end of this century. Moreover, the production and use of fossil fuels have resulted in considerable environmental harm. The generation of environmentally friendly energy from renewable sources such as biomass is therefore essential. This book focuses on the integration of green chemistry concepts into biomass processes and conversion in order to take full advantage of the potential of biomass to replace nonsustainable resources and meet global needs for fuel as well as other chemicals and materials. The Role of Green Chemistry in Biomass Processing and Conversion features contributions from leading experts from Asia, Europe, and North America. Focusing on lignocellulosic biomass, the most abundant biomass resource, the book begins with a general introduction to biomass and biorefineries and then provides an update on the latest advances in green chemistry that support biomass processing and conversion. Next, the authors describe current and emerging biomass processing and conversion techniques that use green chemistry technologies, including: Green solvents such as ionic liquids, supercritical CO2, and water Sustainable energy sources such as microwave irradiation and sonification Green catalytic technologies Advanced membrane separation technologies The last chapter of the book explores the ecotoxicological and environmental effects of converting and using fuels, chemicals, and materials from biomass. Recommended for professionals and students in chemical engineering, green chemistry, and energy and fuels, The Role of Green Chemistry in Biomass Processing and Conversion sets a strong foundation for the development of a competitive and sustainable bioeconomy. This monograph includes a Foreword by James Clark (University of York, UK).

Biofuels And Bioenergy

Author: Sunggyu Lee
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420089552
Size: 71.38 MB
Format: PDF
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The newest addition to the Green Chemistry and Chemical Engineering series from CRC Press, Biofuels and Bioenergy: Processes and Technologies provides a succinct but in-depth introduction to methods of development and use of biofuels and bioenergy. The book illustrates their great appeal as tools for solving the economic and environmental challenges associated with achieving energy sustainability and independence through the use of clean, renewable alternative energy. Taking a process engineering approach rooted in the fuel and petrochemical fields, this book masterfully integrates coverage of current conventional processes and emerging techniques. Topics covered include: Characterization and analysis of biofuels Process economics Chemistry of process conversion Process engineering and design and associated environmental technologies Energy balances and efficiencies Reactor designs and process configurations Energy materials and process equipment Integration with other conventional fossil fuel processes Byproduct utilization Governmental regulations and policies and global trends After an overview of the subject, the book discusses crop oils, biodiesel, and algae fuels. It examines ethanol from corn and from lignocelluloses and then explores fast pyrolysis and gasification of biomass. Discussing the future of biofuel production, it also describes the conversion of waste to biofuels, bioproducts, and bioenergy and concludes with a discussion of mixed feedstock. Written for readers with college-level backgrounds in chemistry, biology, physics, and engineering, this reference explores the science and technology involved in developing biofuels and bioenergy. It addresses the application of these and other disciplines, covering key issues of special interest to fuel process engineers, fuel scientists, and energy technologists, among others.

Chemical Energy From Natural And Synthetic Gas

Author: Yatish T. Shah
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315302349
Size: 16.85 MB
Format: PDF
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Commercial development of energy from renewables and nuclear is critical to long-term industry and environmental goals. However, it will take time for them to economically compete with existing fossil fuel energy resources and their infrastructures. Gas fuels play an important role during and beyond this transition away from fossil fuel dominance to a balanced approach to fossil, nuclear, and renewable energies. Chemical Energy from Natural and Synthetic Gas illustrates this point by examining the many roles of natural and synthetic gas in the energy and fuel industry, addressing it as both a "transition" and "end game" fuel. The book describes various types of gaseous fuels and how are they are recovered, purified, and converted to liquid fuels and electricity generation and used for other static and mobile applications. It emphasizes methane, syngas, and hydrogen as fuels, although other volatile hydrocarbons are considered. It also covers storage and transportation infrastructure for natural gas and hydrogen and methods and processes for cleaning and reforming synthetic gas. The book also deals applications, such as the use of natural gas in power production in power plants, engines, turbines, and vehicle needs. Presents a unified and collective look at gas in the energy and fuel industry, addressing it as both a "transition" and "end game" fuel. Emphasizes methane, syngas, and hydrogen as fuels. Covers gas storage and transport infrastructure. Discusses thermal gasification, gas reforming, processing, purification and upgrading. Describes biogas and bio-hydrogen production. Deals with the use of natural gas in power production in power plants, engines, turbines, and vehicle needs.

The Role Of Catalysis For The Sustainable Production Of Bio Fuels And Bio Chemicals

Author: Kostas Triantafyllidis
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0444563326
Size: 17.11 MB
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The Role of Catalysis for the Sustainable Production of Bio-fuels and Bio-chemicals describes the importance of catalysis for the sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals, focused primarily on the state-of-the-art catalysts and catalytic processes expected to play a decisive role in the "green" production of fuels and chemicals from biomass. In addition, the book includes general elements regarding the entire chain of biomass production, conversion, environment, economy, and life-cycle assessment. Very few books are available on catalysis in production schemes using biomass or its primary conversion products, such as bio-oil and lignin. This book fills that gap with detailed discussions of: Catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass Hybrid biogasoline by co-processing in FCC units Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to biofuels (biomass-to-liquid process) Steam reforming of bio-oils to hydrogen With energy prices rapidly rising, environmental concerns growing, and regulatory apparatus evolving, this book is a resource with tutorial, research, and technological value for chemists, chemical engineers, policymakers, and students. Includes catalytic reaction mechanism schemes and gives a clear understanding of catalytic processes Includes flow diagrams of bench-, pilot- and industrial-scale catalytic processing units and demonstrates the various process technologies involved, enabling easy selection of the best process Incorporates many tables, enabling easy comparison of data based on a critical review of the available literature

Green Chemistry And Engineering

Author: Anne E. Marteel-Parrish
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118720261
Size: 14.41 MB
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Although many were skeptical of the green chemistry movement at first, it has become a multimillion-dollar business. In preventing the creation of hazardous wastes, laboratories and corporations can save millions in clean up efforts and related health costs. This book supplies students with concepts commonly taught in undergraduate general chemistry and general engineering courses, but with a green perspective. It is unique in presenting an integrated discussion of green chemistry and engineering from first principles – not as an afterthought. Real-world examples show creative problem solving based on the latest issues.

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Author: David P. Wilkinson
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439806661
Size: 71.15 MB
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A Detailed, Up-to-Date Treatment of Key Developments in PEMFC Materials The potential to revolutionize the way we power our world Because of its lower temperature and special polymer electrolyte membrane, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is well-suited for transportation, portable, and micro fuel cell applications. But the performance of these fuel cells critically depends on the materials used for the various cell components. Durability, water management, and reducing catalyst poisoning are important factors when selecting PEMFC materials. Written by international PEMFC scientists and engineers from top-level organizations, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Materials Properties and Performance provides a single resource of information for understanding how to select and develop materials for improved PEMFC performance. The book focuses on the major components of the fuel cell unit, along with design and modeling aspects. It covers catalysts and catalyst layers, before discussing the key components of membranes, diffusion layers, and bipolar plates. The book also explores materials modeling for the PEMFC. This volume assesses the current status of PEMFC fuel cell technology, research and development directions, and the scientific and engineering challenges facing the fuel cell community. It demonstrates how the production of a commercially viable PEMFC requires a compromise of materials with adequate properties, design interaction, and manufacturability.