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We Will Be Satisfied With Nothing Less

Author: Hugh Davis
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801463653
Size: 33.17 MB
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Historians have focused almost entirely on the attempt by southern African Americans to attain equal rights during Reconstruction. However, the northern states also witnessed a significant period of struggle during these years. Northern blacks vigorously protested laws establishing inequality in education, public accommodations, and political life and challenged the Republican Party to live up to its stated ideals. In "We Will Be Satisfied With Nothing Less", Hugh Davis concentrates on the two issues that African Americans in the North considered most essential: black male suffrage rights and equal access to the public schools. Davis connects the local and the national; he joins the specifics of campaigns in places such as Cincinnati, Detroit, and San Francisco with the work of the National Equal Rights League and its successor, the National Executive Committee of Colored Persons. The narrative moves forward from their launching of the equal rights movement in 1864 to the "end" of Reconstruction in the North two decades later. The struggle to gain male suffrage rights was the centerpiece of the movement's agenda in the 1860s, while the school issue remained a major objective throughout the period. Following the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment in 1870, northern blacks devoted considerable attention to assessing their place within the Republican Party and determining how they could most effectively employ the franchise to protect the rights of all citizens.

Inherently Unequal

Author: Lawrence Goldstone
Publisher: Walker
ISBN: 9780802778857
Size: 17.16 MB
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A potent and original examination of how the Supreme Court subverted justice and empowered the Jim Crow era. In the years following the Civil War, the 13th Amendment abolished slavery; the 14th conferred citizenship and equal protection under the law to white and black; and the 15th gave black American males the right to vote. In 1875, the most comprehensive civil rights legislation in the nation's history granted all Americans "the full and equal enjoyment" of public accommodations. Just eight years later, the Supreme Court, by an 8-1 vote, overturned the Civil Rights Act as unconstitutional and, in the process, disemboweled the equal protection provisions of the 14th Amendment. Using court records and accounts of the period, Lawrence Goldstone chronicles how "by the dawn of the 20th century the U.S. had become the nation of Jim Crow laws, quasi-slavery, and precisely the same two-tiered system of justice that had existed in the slave era." The very human story of how and why this happened make Inherently Unequal as important as it is provocative. Examining both celebrated decisions like Plessy v. Ferguson and those often overlooked, Goldstone demonstrates how the Supreme Court turned a blind eye to the obvious reality of racism, defending instead the business establishment and status quo--thereby legalizing the brutal prejudice that came to define the Jim Crow era.

The Politics Of Judicial Interpretation

Author: Robert J. Kaczorowski
Publisher: Fordham Univ Press
ISBN: 9780823223824
Size: 36.90 MB
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This landmark work of Constitutional and legal history is the leading account of the ways in which federal judges, attorneys, and other law officers defined a new era of civil and political rights in the South and implemented the revolutionary 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments during Reconstruction. Should be required reading . . . for all historians, jurists, lawyers, political scientists, and government officials who in one way or another are responsible for understanding and interpreting our civil rights past.-Harold M. Hyman, Journal of Southern HistoryImportant, richly researched. . . . the fullest account now available.-American Journal of Legal History

Congressional Record

Author: United States. Congress
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 32.36 MB
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The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. It is published daily when Congress is in session. The Congressional Record began publication in 1873. Debates for sessions prior to 1873 are recorded in The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States (1789-1824), the Register of Debates in Congress (1824-1837), and the Congressional Globe (1833-1873)

A Nation Under Our Feet

Author: Steven Hahn
Publisher: Belknap Press
ISBN: 9780674017658
Size: 50.89 MB
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Emphasizing the role of kinship, labor, and networks in the African American community, the author retraces six generations of black struggles since the end of the Civil War, revealing a "nation" under construction.

We Ain T What We Was

Author: Frederick M. Wirt
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 9780822318934
Size: 72.32 MB
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When officials of the U.S. Department of Justice came in 1961 to Panola County in the Mississippi delta, they found a closed society in which race relations had not altered significantly since Reconstruction. Much has changed, however, in Mississippi in the past three decades, as Frederick M. Wirt demonstrates in We Ain't What We Was, a remarkable look inside the New South. In this follow-up to his highly praised 1970 study of Panola County, The Politics of Southern Equality, Wirt shows how the implementation of civil rights law over the past quarter-century has altered racial reality that in turn altered white perceptions, and thus behaviour and attitudes in a section of the country where segregation and prejudice had been most thoroughly entrenched. Wirt uses multiple indicators - interviews with leaders, attitude tests of children, content analysis of newspapers, school records, and voting and job data - to record what has changed in the Deep South as a result of the 60s revolution in civil rights. Although racism continues to exist in Panola, Wirt maintains that the current generation of southerners is sharply distinguished from its predecessors, and he effectively documents the transformations in individuals and institutions. In a time of increasing popular challenges to the use of law in support of civil liberties, or the place of the federal government to effect necessary social change, this book testifies to the great changes, both public and personal, that were brought about by the strong implementation of civil rights law over thirty years ago. This study shows that adaptation to change was not overnight, not final, but gradual and always persistent. We Ain't What We Was will be of interest to a broad range of readers, including American and legal historians, educators, policy makers, and anyone with an interest in America's ongoing conflict over civil liberties.

Tasting Freedom

Author: Daniel R. Biddle
Publisher: Temple University Press
ISBN: 159213467X
Size: 76.74 MB
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Octavius Valentine Catto was an orator who shared stages with Frederick Douglass, a second baseman on Philadelphia’s best black baseball team, a teacher at the city’s finest black school and an activist who fought in the state capital and on the streets for equal rights. With his racially-charged murder, the nation lost a civil rights pioneer—one who risked his life a century before Selma and Birmingham. In Tasting Freedom Murray Dubin and Pulitzer Prize winner Dan Biddle painstakingly chronicle the life of this charismatic black leader—a “free” black whose freedom was in name only. Born in the American south, where slavery permeated everyday life, he moved north where he joined the fight to be truly free—free to vote, go to school, ride on streetcars, play baseball and even participate in July 4th celebrations. Catto electrified a biracial audience in 1864 when he proclaimed, “There must come a change,” calling on free men and women to act and educate the newly freed slaves. With a group of other African Americans who called themselves a “band of brothers,” they challenged one injustice after another. Tasting Freedom presents the little-known stories of Catto and the men and women who struggled to change America.

Negroes With Guns

Author: Robert Franklin Williams
Publisher: Wayne State University Press
ISBN: 9780814327142
Size: 80.78 MB
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First published in 1962, Negroes with Guns is the story of a southern black community's struggle to arm itself in self-defense against the Ku Klux Klan and other racist groups. Frustrated and angered by violence condoned or abetted by the local authorities against blacks, the small community of Monroe, North Carolina, brought the issue of armed self-defense to the forefront of the civil rights movement. The single most important intellectual influence on Huey P. Newton, the founder of the Black Panther Party, Negroes with Guns is a classic story of a man who risked his life for democracy and freedom.

Black Wilmington And The North Carolina Way

Author: John L. Godwin
Publisher: University Press of America
ISBN: 9780761816829
Size: 14.36 MB
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In this gripping narrative of the development of the Civil Rights movement in North Carolina, Dr. John L. Godwin brings to life the infamous case of the Wilmington Ten and the subsequent allegations of conspiracy. Through extensive research and interviews, he seeks to uncover some of the truth behind the actual events of the 1972 trial, while at the same time drawing readers in with the compelling details of the movement's origins in North Carolina and its ultimate outcome in one community. Dr. Godwin underscores his effort with a comprehensive exploration of the Civil Rights movement through the eyes of the locality, comparing it incisively to the earlier protests of the 1960s. His portrait joins that of scholars who have sought to describe the transformation brought about by black leadership on the local and state level, recounting both its victories and the frustrated hopes of local activists, in addition to how the new conservatism ultimately succeeded in co-opting the movement. For Wilmington, this is set against the background of North Carolina politics and civic culture, highlighting the role of Benjamin Chavis and his rise to national prominence. Filled with pictures that personalize this troubled era of American history, Dr. Godwin's book is an essential resource, not only to historians but also to students of public policy.