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Welfare S Forgotten Past

Author: Lorie Charlesworth
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135179638
Size: 20.90 MB
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That ‘poor law was law’ is a fact that has slipped from the consciousness of historians of welfare in England and Wales, and in North America. Welfare's Forgotten Past remedies this situation by tracing the history of the legal right of the settled poor to relief when destitute. Poor law was not simply local custom, but consisted of legal rights, duties and obligations that went beyond social altruism. This legal ‘truth’ is, however, still ignored or rejected by some historians, and thus ‘lost’ to social welfare policy-makers. This forgetting or minimising of a legal, enforceable right to relief has not only led to a misunderstanding of welfare’s past; it has also contributed to the stigmatisation of poverty, and the emergence and persistence of the idea that its relief is a 'gift' from the state. Documenting the history and the effects of this forgetting, whilst also providing a ‘legal’ history of welfare, Lorie Charlesworth argues that it is timely for social policy-makers and reformists – in Britain, the United States and elsewhere – to reconsider an alternative welfare model, based on the more positive, legal aspects of welfare’s 400-year legal history.

Identification And Registration Practices In Transnational Perspective

Author: J. Brown
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137367318
Size: 31.89 MB
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This collection examines the subject of identification and surveillance from 16th C English parish registers to 21st C DNA databases. The contributors, who range from historians to legal specialists, provide an insight into the historical development behind such issues as biometric identification, immigration control and personal data use.

Poverty And The Poor Law In Ireland 18501914

Author: Virginia Crossman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 178138570X
Size: 52.40 MB
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The focus of this study is the poor law system, and the people who used it. Introduced in 1838, the Irish poor law established a nationwide system of poor relief that was administered and financed locally. This book provides the first detailed, comprehensive assessment of the ideological basis and practical operation of the poor law system in the post-Famine period. Analysis of contemporary understandings of poverty is integrated with discussion of local relief practices to uncover the attitudes and responses of those both giving and receiving relief, and the active relationship between them. Local case studies are used to explore key issues such as entitlement and eligibility, as well as the treatment of problem groups such as unmarried mothers and vagrants, thus allowing local and individual experience to enrich our understanding of poverty and welfare in historical context. Previous studies of poverty and welfare in Ireland have concentrated on the measures taken to relieve poverty, and their political context. Little attempt has been made to explore the experience of being poor, or to identify the strategies adopted by poor people to negotiate an inhospitable economic and social climate. This innovative interrogation of poor law records reveals the poor to have been active historical agents making calculated choices about how, when and where to apply for aid. Approaching welfare as a process, the book provides a deeper and more wide ranging assessment of the Irish poor law than any study previously undertaken and represents a major milestone in Irish economic and social history.

Victorian Women Unwed Mothers And The London Foundling Hospital

Author: Jessica A. Sheetz-Nguyen
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1441194541
Size: 74.91 MB
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This volume seeks to address the questions of poverty, charity, and public welfare, taking the nineteenth-century London Foundling Hospital as its focus. It delineates the social rules that constructed the gendered world of the Victorian age, and uses 'respectability' as a factor for analysis: the women who successfully petitioned the Foundling Hospital for admission of their infants were not East End prostitutes, but rather unmarried women, often domestic servants, determined to maintain social respectability. The administrators of the Foundling Hospital reviewed over two hundred petitions annually; deliberated on about one hundred cases; and accepted not more than 25 per cent of all cases. Using primary material from the Foundling Hospital's extensive archives, this study moves methodically from the broad social and geographical context of London and the Foundling Hospital itself, to the micro-historical case data of individual mothers and infants.

Pauper Capital

Author: Dr David R Green
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409480720
Size: 51.68 MB
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Few measures, if any, could claim to have had a greater impact on British society than the poor law. As a comprehensive system of relieving those in need, the poor law provided relief for a significant proportion of the population but influenced the behaviour of a much larger group that lived at or near the margins of poverty. It touched the lives of countless numbers of individuals not only as paupers but also as ratepayers, guardians, officials and magistrates. This system underwent significant change in the nineteenth century with the shift from the old to the new poor law. The extent to which changes in policy anticipated new legislation is a key question and is here examined in the context of London. Rapid population growth and turnover, the lack of personal knowledge between rich and poor, and the close proximity of numerous autonomous poor law authorities created a distinctly metropolitan context for the provision of relief. This work provides the first detailed study of the poor law in London during the period leading up to and after the implementation of the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834. Drawing on a wide range of primary and secondary sources the book focuses explicitly on the ways in which those involved with the poor law - both as providers and recipients - negotiated the provision of relief. In the context of significant urban change in the late eighteenth and nineteenth century, it analyses the poor law as a system of institutions and explores the material and political processes that shaped relief policies.

Taxing The Working Poor

Author: Achim Kemmerling
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 184844737X
Size: 21.58 MB
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Kemmerling deftly intertwines the efficiency theory of taxation with the political basis of taxing the working poor. . . This commendable effort in interdisciplinary study and the comparative analysis of taxation is an essential reference for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as faculty and professionals of economics, political science, and taxation systems of Europe. S. Chaudhuri, Choice Taxing the Working Poor is an inspiring read for political scientists and economists interested in the relationship between taxation and employment. Based on an elegant combination of econometric analysis and historical case studies, it shows that the alleged trade-off between employment and progressive taxation has political rather than economic roots. Philipp Genschel, Jacobs University Bremen, Germany What are the economic and political forces which generate different regimes of tax on labour? What are the implications for the labour market of these different regimes? And does globalisation bring a halt to tax-based redistribution? Achim Kemmerling tackles these and other important questions in this significant book. Malcolm Sawyer, University of Leeds, UK We have been distracted from the detailed problems of financing the welfare state by the tired old twentieth-century debate between libertarian tax minimisers and maximal socialist collectivisers. We have to move on. The welfare state has to be accepted and the detailed problems of taxation to sustain it have to be addressed. This well-researched and fascinating book addresses the political and institutional origins of different tax systems and points to viable strategies of redistribution and reform. Geoffrey M. Hodgson, University of Hertfordshire, UK In most industrialized countries the tax burden of poor people has increased dramatically over the last few decades. This book analyses both the political origins of this increase and its consequences for the labour market. Achim Kemmerling illustrates that tax-based redistribution and employment are not incompatible, and that the shift away from redistribution has not occurred on grounds of economic efficiency. He goes on to show that a long-term shift from capital to labour taxation has provoked conflicts of interests between workers that have weakened the political cause of tax-based redistribution. This interdisciplinary account of the political economy of taxing low wages explains the historical and structural origins of political tensions between different types of workers and their effects on the performance of labour markets. As such, it will strongly appeal to a wide-ranging audience, including academics, students and researchers with a special interest in political science, political economy, labour markets and the economics of taxation. Practitioners in the field of labour market, social and tax policies interested in the normative consequences of taxation for the labour market will also find the book to be of great interest.