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What Makes Biology Unique

Author: Ernst Mayr
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521700344
Size: 68.44 MB
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This book, a collection of essays written by the most eminent evolutionary biologist of the twentieth century, explores biology as an autonomous science, offers insights on the history of evolutionary thought, critiques the contributions of philosophy to the science of biology, and comments on several of the major ongoing issues in evolutionary theory. Notably, Mayr explains that Darwin's theory of evolution is actually five separate theories, each with its own history, trajectory and impact. Natural selection is a separate idea from common descent, and from geographic speciation, and so on. A number of the perennial Darwinian controversies may well have been caused by the confounding of the five separate theories into a single composite. Those interested in evolutionary theory, or the philosophy and history of science will find useful ideas in this book, which should appeal to virtually anyone with a broad curiosity about biology.

Grundriss Wissenschaftsphilosophie

Author: Simon Lohse
Publisher: Felix Meiner Verlag
ISBN: 3787331654
Size: 46.86 MB
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Der Band bietet eine breite Einführung in die Wissenschaftsphilosophie, die sich (anders als die meisten verfügbaren Einführungen) nicht auf bestimmte Themen oder Diskussionslinien der allgemeinen Wissenschaftstheorie beschränkt, sondern die Philosophien der Einzelwissenschaften separat in den Blick nimmt. Insbesondere in den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten sind die Philosophien der Einzelwissenschaften unter dem Dach der Wissenschaftsphilosophie zunehmend zusammengewachsen als gleichberechtigte, analog strukturierte und oft aufeinander bezogene Arbeitsfelder, die eigenständig, aber in wechselseitigem Bezug auf die allgemeine Wissenschaftsphilosophie diskutiert werden. Eine Folge dieser Entwicklung ist, dass sich die wichtigsten wissenschaftstheoretischen Debatten immer stärker in den Philosophien der Einzelwissenschaften abspielen. An diesen Stand der internationalen Diskussion schließt der Band an, der in mehrfacher Hinsicht eine Lücke füllt: Herkömmliche Überblickswerke behandeln oft theoretische Fragestellungen, die sich nur auf bestimmte Wissenschaftsgebiete beziehen lassen, wobei die wissenschaftliche Praxis oft nur als Beispielreservoir für die Theorie dient. Demgegenüber liegt diesem Band ein breites Wissenschaftsverständnis zugrunde, das alle akademischen Arbeitsbereiche umfasst: neben den Natur- und Lebenswissenschaften etwa auch die Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften, Rechts- und Ingenieurswissenschaften, Literaturwissenschaften, Geo- und Umweltwissenschaften, Psychologie und Ökonomie. Ausgangspunkt ist die philosophische Untersuchung der einzelnen Wissenschaften mit ihren je eigenen Methoden, Standards und Zielen.

Transformationen Antiker Wissenschaften

Author: Georg Toepfer
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110228211
Size: 49.38 MB
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Antiquity saw the development of influential forms of the creation and organization of knowledge, not just in social and theoretical terms, but also with regard to the practice of research. These forms of knowledge and their transformations are the focus of this volume. The subject is not the simple recognition of the reception of ancient knowledge in later cultures, but rather the establishment and development of the complex of factors that together comprise science.

Evolution

Author: Philipp Sarasin
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3476054624
Size: 57.11 MB
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Wichtigste wissenschaftliche Theorie der Moderne. Darwins Evolutionstheorie revolutionierte nicht nur die Biologie, sondern beeinflusst bis heute alle Wissensbereiche und wird nach wie vor kontrovers diskutiert. Das Handbuch bietet erstmals einen umfassenden Überblick über den gegenwärtigen Stand der Debatten. Es schildert ausführlich die Geschichte der Evolutionstheorie und geht auf ihre wissenschaftlichen Praktiken, Repräsentationsweisen und zentralen Begriffe ein. Zudem dokumentiert es ihre Rezeption in den Wissenschaften und ihren Einfluss auf Gesellschaft und Kunst.

Ornithology Evolution And Philosophy

Author: Jürgen Haffer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540717782
Size: 36.75 MB
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This book is the first detailed biography of Ernst Mayr. He was an ‘architect’ of the Synthetic Theory of Evolution, and the greatest evolutionary biologist since Charles Darwin. He is one of the most widely known biologists of the 20th century.

Dawkins God

Author: Alister E. McGrath
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118964799
Size: 41.71 MB
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A fully updated new edition of a critically acclaimed examinationof the theories and writings of Richard Dawkins by a world-renownedexpert on the relation of science and religion Includes in-depth analysis of Dawkins’ landmark treatiseThe God Delusion (2006), as well as coverage of his laterpopular works The Magic of Reality (2011) and TheGreatest Show on Earth (2011),and a new chapter on Dawkins as apopularizer of science Tackles Dawkins’ hostile and controversial views onreligion, and examine the religious implications of his scientificideas including a comprehensive investigation of the ‘selfishgene’ Written in an accessible and engaging style that will appeal toanyone interested in better understanding the interplay betweenscience and religion

Three Theological Mistakes

Author: Ric Machuga
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
ISBN: 1630877778
Size: 57.34 MB
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- Is the existence of God a matter of faith or knowledge? - Does God sometimes act miraculously or are there physical causes for everything? - Is morality absolute or relative? - Are humans truly free or does God's sovereignty determine everything? - When bad things happen, is God the cause or are they the fault of humans? Too frequently Christians answer these questions with a Yes to one side and a No to the other side. Thomas Aquinas and Karl Barth answer Yes to both. Following their model, Machuga defends a "third way" which transcends the Enlightenment dichotomies of fideism vs. rationalism, supernaturalism vs. naturalism, relativism vs. absolutism, free will vs. predestination, and God's justice vs. his mercy. Machuga begins by showing how these false dichotomies grew out of the Enlightenment assumptions of mechanism, universal quantification, and mono-causation. He then corrects these demonstrably dubious assumptions by articulating a theory of dual-causation. The result is a thoroughly biblical understanding of God, miracles, and free will that can withstand the contemporary criticisms of both science and philosophy.

Breaking The Spell

Author: Daniel C. Dennett
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 9781101218860
Size: 16.30 MB
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For all the thousands of books that have been written about religion, few until this one have attempted to examine it scientifically: to ask why—and how—it has shaped so many lives so strongly. Is religion a product of blind evolutionary instinct or rational choice? Is it truly the best way to live a moral life? Ranging through biology, history, and psychology, Daniel C. Dennett charts religion’s evolution from “wild” folk belief to “domesticated” dogma. Not an antireligious screed but an unblinking look beneath the veil of orthodoxy, Breaking the Spell will be read and debated by believers and skeptics alike.

Oxford Companion To Emotion And The Affective Sciences

Author: David Sander
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191021016
Size: 33.42 MB
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Few areas have witnessed the type of growth we have seen in the affective sciences in the past decades. Across psychology, philosophy, economics, and neuroscience, there has been an explosion of interest in the topic of emotion and affect. Comprehensive, authoritative, up-to-date, and easy-to-use, the new Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences is an indispensable resource for all who wish to find out about theories, concepts, methods, and research findings in this rapidly growing interdisciplinary field - one that brings together, amongst others, psychologists, neuroscientists, social scientists, philosophers, and historians. Organized by alphabetical entries, and presenting brief definitions, concise overviews, and encyclopaedic articles (all with extensive references to relevant publications), this Companion lends itself to casual browsing by non-specialists interested in the fascinating phenomena of emotions, moods, affect disorders, and personality as well as to focused search for pertinent information by students and established scholars in the field. Not only does the book provide entries on affective phenomena, but also on their neural underpinnings, their cognitive antecedents and the associated responses in physiological systems, facial, vocal, and bodily expressions, and action tendencies. Numerous entries also consider the role of emotion in society and social behavior, as well as in cognitive processes such as those critical for perception, attention, memory, judgement and decision-making. The volume has been edited by a group of internationally leading authorities in the respective disciplines consisting of two editors (David Sander and Klaus Scherer) as well as group of 11 associate editors (John T. Cacioppo, Tim Dalgleish, Robert Dantzer, Richard J. Davidson, Ronald B. de Sousa, Phoebe C. Ellsworth, Nico Frijda, George Loewenstein, Paula M. Niedenthal, Peter Salovey, and Richard A. Shweder). The members of the editorial board have commissioned and reviewed contributions from major experts on specific topics. In addition to comprehensive coverage of technical terms and fundamental issues, the volume also highlights current debates that inform the ongoing research process. In addition, the Companion contains a wealth of material on the role of emotion in applied domains such as economic behaviour, music and arts, work and organizational behaviour, family interactions and group dynamics, religion, law and justice, and societal change. Highly accessible and wide-ranging, this book is a vital resource for scientists, students, and professionals eager to obtain a rapid, conclusive overview on central terms and topics and anyone wanting to learn more about the mechanisms underlying the emotions dominating many aspects of our lives.