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Wild Crop Relatives Genomic And Breeding Resources

Author: Chittaranjan Kole
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642143878
Size: 67.45 MB
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Wild crop relatives are now playing a significant part in the elucidation and improvement of the genomes of their cultivated counterparts. This work includes comprehensive examinations of the status, origin, distribution, morphology, cytology, genetic diversity and available genetic and genomic resources of numerous wild crop relatives, as well as of their evolution and phylogenetic relationship. Further topics include their role as model plants, genetic erosion and conservation efforts, and their domestication for the purposes of bioenergy, phytomedicines, nutraceuticals and phytoremediation. Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources comprises 10 volumes on Cereals, Millets and Grasses, Oilseeds, Legume Crops and Forages, Vegetables, Temperate Fruits, Tropical and Subtropical Fruits, Industrial Crops, Plantation and Ornamental Crops, and Forest Trees. It contains 125 chapters written by nearly 400 well-known authors from about 40 countries.

Turfgrass

Author: John Clinton Stier
Publisher: Amer Society of Agronomy
ISBN: 9780891186137
Size: 54.31 MB
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Presents a comprehensive overview of current knowledge and issues in the field of turfgrass research and management, including the genetics and breeding, the diseases and pests, and the ecology of turfgrasses.

Crop Wild Relatives And Climate Change

Author: Shyam Singh Yadav
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118854330
Size: 21.14 MB
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Two major challenges to continued global food security are the ever increasing demand for food products, and the unprecedented abiotic stresses that crops face due to climate change.Wild relatives of domesticated crops serve as a reservoir of genetic material, with the potential to be used to develop new, improved varieties of crops. Crop Wild Relative and Climate Change integrates crop evolution, breeding technologies and biotechnologies, improved practices and sustainable approaches while exploring the role wild relatives could play in increasing agricultural output. Crop Wild Relative and Climate Change begins with overviews of the impacts of climate change on growing environments and the challenges that agricultural production face in coming years and decades. Chapters then explore crop evolution and the potential for crop wild relatives to contribute novel genetic resources to the breeding of more resilient and productive crops. Breeding technologies and biotechnological advances that are being used to incorporate key genetic traits of wild relatives into crop varieties are also covered. There is also a valuable discussion on the importance of conserving genetic resources to ensure continued successful crop production. A timely resource, Crop Wild Relative and Climate Change will be an invaluable resource for the crop science community for years to come.

Genetics Genomics And Breeding Of Sorghum

Author: Yi-Hong Wang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482210096
Size: 39.33 MB
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Sorghum is one of the hardiest crop plants in modern agriculture and also one of the most versatile. Its seeds provide calorie for food and feed, stalks for building and industrial materials and its juice for syrup. This book provides an in-depth review of the cutting-edge knowledge in sorghum genetics and its applications in sorghum breeding. Each chapter is authored by specialists in their fields to report the latest trends and findings. The book showcases the definitive value of sorghum as a model system to study the genetic basis of crop productivity and stress tolerance and will provide a foundation for future studies in sorghum genetics, genomics, and breeding.

North American Crop Wild Relatives Volume 1

Author: Stephanie L. Greene
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319951003
Size: 43.23 MB
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The plant species that humans rely upon have an extended family of wild counterparts that are an important source of genetic diversity used to breed productive crops. These wild and weedy cousins are valuable as a resource for adapting our food, forage, industrial and other crops to climate change. Many wild plant species are also directly used, especially for revegetation, and as medicinal and ornamental plants. North America is rich in these wild plant genetic resources. This book is a valuable reference that describes the important crop wild relatives and wild utilized species found in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The book highlights efforts taken by these countries to conserve and use wild resources and provides essential information on best practices for collecting and conserving them. Numerous maps using up-to-date information and methods illustrate the distribution of important species, and supplement detailed description on the potential value these resources have to agriculture, as well as their conservation statuses and needs. There is broad recognition of the urgent need to conserve plant diversity; however, a small fraction of wild species is distinguished by their potential to support agricultural production. Many of these species are common, even weedy, and are easily overshadowed by rare or endangered plants. Nevertheless, because of their genetic proximity to agriculturally important crops or direct use, they deserve to be recognized, celebrated, conserved, and made available to support food and agricultural security. This comprehensive two-volume reference will be valuable for students and scientists interested in economic botany, and for practitioners at all levels tasked with conserving plant biodiversity. The chapters 'Public Education and Outreach Opportunities for Crop Wild Relatives in North America' and 'Genetic Resources of Crop Wild Relatives – A Canadian Perspective' are open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via link.springer.com.

The Role Of Biotechnology In Exploring And Protecting Agricultural Genetic Resources

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.
ISBN: 9789251054802
Size: 65.43 MB
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"Chapters 1 to 14 of in this book are based on papers presented at Sessions I, II and IV of an international workshop held from 5 to 7 March 2005 entitled, The Role of Biotechnology for the Characterisation and Conservation of Crop, Forestry, Animal and Fishery Genetic Resources, organized by the FAO Working Group on Biotechnology (FAO-WGB), the Fondazione per le Biotecnologie and the Italian Society of Agriculture Genetics (SIGA). The workshop took place at the Villa Gualino Congress Center in Turin, Italy ...The remaining two chapters, 15 and 16, are from the e-mail conference organized by the FAO-WGB roughly three months after the Turin workshop."--P. xi.

Plant Evolution And The Origin Of Crop Species

Author: James F. Hancock
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1845938011
Size: 71.96 MB
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The genetic variability that developed in plants during their evolution is the basic of their domestication and breeding into the crops grown today for food, fuel and other industrial uses. This third edition of Plant Evolution and the Origin of Crop Species brings the subject up-to-date, with more emphasis on crop origins. Beginning with a description of the processes of evolution in native and cultivated plants, the book reviews the origins of crop domestication and their subsequent development over time. All major crop species are discussed, including cereals, protein plants, starch crops, fruits and vegetables, from their origins to conservation of their genetic resources for future development.

Genetics And Genomics Of The Triticeae

Author: Catherine Feuillet
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387774893
Size: 46.68 MB
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Sequencing of the model plant genomes such as those of A. thaliana and rice has revolutionized our understanding of plant biology but it has yet to translate into the improvement of major crop species such as maize, wheat, or barley. Moreover, the comparative genomic studies in cereals that have been performed in the past decade have revealed the limits of conservation between rice and the other cereal genomes. This has necessitated the development of genomic resources and programs for maize, sorghum, wheat, and barley to serve as the foundation for future genome sequencing and the acceleration of genomic based improvement of these critically important crops. Cereals constitute over 50% of total crop production worldwide (http://www.fao.org/) and cereal seeds are one of the most important renewable resources for food, feed, and industrial raw materials. Crop species of the Triticeae tribe that comprise wheat, barley, and rye are essential components of human and domestic animal nutrition. With 17% of all crop area, wheat is the staple food for 40% of the world’s population, while barley ranks fifth in the world production. Their domestication in the Fertile Crescent 10,000 years ago ushered in the beginning of agriculture and signified an important breakthrough in the advancement of civilization. Rye is second after wheat among grains most commonly used in the production of bread and is also very important for mixed animal feeds. It can be cultivated in poor soils and climates that are generally not suitable for other cereals. Extensive genetics and cytogenetics studies performed in the Triticeae species over the last 50 years have led to the characterization of their chromosomal composition and origins and have supported intensive work to create new genetic resources. Cytogenetic studies in wheat have allowed the identification and characterization of the different homoeologous genomes and have demonstrated the utility of studying wheat genome evolution as a model for the analysis of polyploidization, a major force in the evolution of the eukaryotic genomes. Barley with its diploid genome shows high collinearity with the other Triticeae genomes and therefore serves as a good template for supporting genomic analyses in the wheat and rye genomes. The knowledge gained from genetic studies in the Triticeae has also been used to produce Triticale, the first human made hybrid crop that results from a cross between wheat and rye and combines the nutrition quality and productivity of wheat with the ruggedness of rye. Despite the economic importance of the Triticeae species and the need for accelerated crop improvement based on genomics studies, the size (1.7 Gb for the bread wheat genome, i.e., 5x the human genome and 40 times the rice genome), high repeat content (>80%), and complexity (polyploidy in wheat) of their genomes often have been considered too challenging for efficient molecular analysis and genetic improvement in these species. Consequently, Triticeae genomics has lagged behind the genomic advances of other cereal crops for many years. Recently, however, the situation has changed dramatically and robust genomic programs can be established in the Triticeae as a result of the convergence of several technology developments that have led to new, more efficient scientific capabilities and resources such as whole-genome and chromosome-specific BAC libraries, extensive EST collections, transformation systems, wild germplasm and mutant collections, as well as DNA chips. Currently, the Triticeae genomics "toolbox" is comprised of: - 9 publicly available BAC libraries from diploid (5), tetraploid (1) and hexaploid (3) wheat; 3 publicly available BAC libraries from barley and one BAC library from rye; - 3 wheat chromosome specific BAC libraries; - DNA chips including commercially available first generation chips from AFFYMETRIX containing 55’000 wheat and 22,000 barley genes; - A large number of wheat and barley genetic maps that are saturated by a significant number of markers; - The largest plant EST collection with 870’000 wheat ESTs, 440’000 barley ESTs and about 10’000 rye ESTs; - Established protocols for stable transformation by biolistic and agrobacterium as well as a transient expression system using VIGS in wheat and barley; and - Large collections of well characterized cultivated and wild genetic resources. International consortia, such as the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative (ITMI), have advanced synergies in the Triticeae genetics community in the development of additional mapping populations and markers that have led to a dramatic improvement in the resolution of the genetic maps and the amount of molecular markers in the three species resulting in the accelerated utilization of molecular markers in selection programs. Together, with the development of the genomic resources, the isolation of the first genes of agronomic interest by map-based cloning has been enabled and has proven the feasibility of forging the link between genotype and phenotype in the Triticeae species. Moreover, the first analyses of BAC sequences from wheat and barley have allowed preliminary characterizations of their genome organization and composition as well as the first inter- and intra-specific comparative genomic studies. These later have revealed important evolutionary mechanisms (e.g. unequal crossing over, illegitimate recombination) that have shaped the wheat and barley genomes during their evolution. These breakthroughs have demonstrated the feasibility of developing efficient genomic studies in the Triticeae and have led to the recent establishment of the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) (http//:www.wheatgenome.org) and the International Barley Sequencing Consortium (www.isbc.org) that aim to sequence, respectively, the hexaploid wheat and barley genomes to accelerate gene discovery and crop improvement in the next decade. Large projects aiming at the establishment of the physical maps as well as a better characterization of their composition and organization through large scale random sequencing projects have been initiated already. Concurrently, a number of projects have been launched to develop high throughput functional genomics in wheat and barley. Transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics analyses of traits of agronomic importance, such as quality, disease resistance, drought, and salt tolerance, are underway in both species. Combined with the development of physical maps, efficient gene isolation will be enabled and improved sequencing technologies and reduced sequencing costs will permit ultimately genome sequencing and access to the entire wheat and barley gene regulatory elements repertoire. Because rye is closely related to wheat and barley in Triticeae evolution, the latest developments in wheat and barley genomics will be of great use for developing rye genomics and for providing tools for rye improvement. Finally, a new model for temperate grasses has emerged in the past year with the development of the genetics and genomics (including a 8x whole genome shotgun sequencing project) of Brachypodium, a member of the Poeae family that is more closely related to the Triticeae than rice and can provide valuable information for supporting Triticeae genomics in the near future. These recent breakthroughs have yet to be reviewed in a single source of literature and current handbooks on wheat, barley, or rye are dedicated mainly to progress in genetics. In "Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae", we will aim to comprehensively review the recent progress in the development of structural and functional genomics tools in the Triticeae species and review the understanding of wheat, barley, and rye biology that has resulted from these new resources as well as to illuminate how this new found knowledge can be applied for the improvement of these essential species. The book will be the seventh volume in the ambitious series of books, Plant Genetics and Genomics (Richard A. Jorgensen, series editor) that will attempt to bring the field up-to-date on the genetics and genomics of important crop plants and genetic models. It is our hope that the publication will be a useful and timely tool for researchers and students alike working with the Triticeae.