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Author: James K. Good
Publisher: DEStech Publications, Inc
ISBN: 193207869X
Size: 37.99 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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This new book, by two of the world's foremost experts, is the definitive guide to how winding machines work and how wound rolls are formed. It covers a wide array of machines in use across all web industries, including paper, film, foil, nonwovens, textiles, and more. It sets the standard for understanding and applying quality control in the field. Using hundreds of proven calculations, the book enables readers to understand and make the adjustments necessary to prevent roll defects and improve product quality. Dozens of examples and hands-on applications illustrate key techniques. Most of the book, especially the last section on measurement, is written in everyday language accessible to all responsible for machine operation and roll quality—from engineers to shop floor managers.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface About This Book and CD-ROM Section I—MACHINES 1. Zen and the Art of Winding · The TNT's of Winding · Winder Classes · Limits on Tension, Nip and Torque Differential · The Effect of Class on Range of Wound Roll Tightness · What is Tightness? · How Does Winding Being a One-Knob Process Affect Winding Strategy? · What Class is Best and How Many Knobs Do I Need? · What About Taper or Roll Structure? · How Do You Set Taper? · A Few Words About Optimization—What is the Best Tension? · Bibliography 2. Some Winding Defects · DFM Applied to Winding · Getting Started · What is a Defect? · Blocking · Core—Crushed · Core—Loose · Corrugations or Ropes · Curl · Gauge Bands or Ridges · Hardness Variations Across a Roll · Nip Induced Defects · Offsets and Rough Roll Edges · Out-of-Round Roll · Starring and Related Defects · Telescoping · A Note on Oscillation · Summary · Bibliography 3. Winder Arrangements · Selecting a Winder · Salvage Winders · Turret Winders · Reels · Duplex Winders · Two Drum Winders · Grooving, Traction Coated and Rubber Covered Drums · Gap Winders · Bigger is Better for Drums, Spools, Cores and Rollers · Supporting Large Rolls on Drums · Summary · Bibliography 4. Roll Geometry and Properties · Roll Diameter · Roll Length · Resolving Roll Length Discrepancies · Roll Width · Wound Roll Offsets and Rough Edges · Telescoping and Dishing · Roll Weight and Density · Some Useful Roll Conversion Formulas · Bibliography Section II—MECHANICS 5. Simple Material Properties · Basis Weight · Caliper · Caliper Profile—A Very Important Note · Density or Bulk · Other Web Material Properties of Winding Interest · Other Roll Properties of Winding Interest · The Fiber Core—The Foundation of Most Wound Rolls · Bibliography 6. Introduction to Wound Roll Modeling · Stresses in a Wound Roll · Anisotropy and Principal Axes · MD or Tangential Modulus · ZD or Radial Modulus · In-Plane Poisson Ratio · Poisson Ratios for Winding Models · Basic Equations of Winding Models · Winding Equation · Core Modulus Ec—The Inner Boundary Condition · Winding Tightness—The Outer Boundary Condition · Bibliography 7. Simple 1-D Models · Early Models 1950-1985 · Hakiel's Models—1986 · Early Complex Models · Early Experimental Verification · The Hakiel Formulation · Spongy and Fully Compressed Behavior · Constant Tension versus Constant Torque · Large Deformations · Plane Strain versus Plane Stress Winding Models · Bibliography 8. 2-D Models and Gauge Variation · Measuring Gauge Profile · Early Models of the Effects of Gauge Variation · True 2-D Models of the Effects of Gauge Variation · Summary of the Effects of Gauge Variation · Bibliography 9. The Effect of Nip on Wound Roll Stresses · Classes of Winders · What is WOT? · Early Experimental Evidence of WOT · Early Models for WOT · Comparative Study of Different Models for WOT · WOT on Two Drum Winders · Summary of Findings · Bibliography 10. The Effects of Air Entrainment · Air Entrainment Between Webs and Rollers · When Is Air Important Between Permeable Webs and Rollers/Wound Rolls? · Some Practical Observations on Entrained Air · Air Entrainment on Centerwinders · An Introduction to Nip Rollers on Winders · Modeling Air Exclusion by a Nip Roller · Exhaust of Air Entrained From the Edges of a Wound Roll · The Effect of Air Entrainment on Wound Roll Stresses · Effect of Air Exhaust on Wound Roll Stresses · Summary · Bibliography 11. The Effects of Moisture and Temperature · Time Constants for Movement of Moisture/Temperature in a Wound Roll · Moisture/Temperature Profiles of a Wound Roll · Thermoelastic Behavior in Wound Rolls · Hygroscopic Behavior in Wound Rolls · Bibliography 12. Viscoelastic Behavior · Creep and Stress Relaxation · Viscoelastic Behavior · Bibliography 13. Defects Predicted by Winding Models · Pressure Related Defects · Bursts, Baggy Lanes, Ridges and Hardstreaks · Modeling of Simple Slippage Related Defects · Telescoping · Crepe Wrinkles · Starring · Tin-Canning · Core Collapse · Loose Cores and Core Stiffness · Bibliography 14. Dynamic Behavior at High Speeds · Centrifugal Effects · Vibration · Bibliography Section III—MEASUREMENT 15. Wound Roll Sampling and Inspection · Why Measure? · Measurement Methods · Methodology · Sampling · Interchangeability of Measurements · Bibliography 16. Measures of Roll Hardness · Billy Club and its Variants · RhoMeter and RhoHammer · Backtender's Friend · Schmidt (Concrete) Hammer · Parotester · TAPIO RQP · Bibliography 17. Measurements of Interlayer Pressure · Pull Tab · Smith Needle · Core Torque · Axial Press Test · Pressure Transducers · Caliper In-Roll · Acoustic Time-of-Flight · Bibliography 18. Measurements Based on Strain · Cameron Gap · J-Line · Radially Drilled Holes · Slit Roll Face · Strain Gages · WIT-WOT · Bibliography Appendix D—Dictionary 19. Density Based Measures · Air In Roll · Roll Density · Density Analyzer—History · Density Analyzer —Construction · Density Analyzer—Theory of Operation · Analysis of the Density Analyzer · Bibliography 20. Other Wound Roll Measures · Profile · Bubbleometer · X-Ray Tomography · Bibliography 21. Wound Roll Measurement Considerations · Is my Web Good?—Sampling Across the Width of the Roll · Is my Roll or my Winder Good?—Sampling Through the Roll · Is It the Winder's Fault? · Is my Measurement Good?—Testing the Test Appendix A—Units and Conversions Appendix B—Selected Bibliography Appendix C—Selected Calculations

Lignocellulosic Fibers And Wood Handbook

Author: Mohamed Naceur Belgacem
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118773837
Size: 73.80 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book will focus on lignocellulosic fibres as a raw material for several applications. It will start with wood chemistry and morphology. Then, some fibre isolation processes will be given, before moving to composites, panel and paper manufacturing, characterization and aging.

Mechanics Of Paper Products

Author: Kaarlo Niskanen
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110254638
Size: 49.27 MB
Format: PDF
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This graduate level textbook focuses on the mechanical properties and performance of products made of fiber-based materials such as paper and board. The book aims to help students develop effective skills for solving problems of product performance and engineering challenges in new product development. Therefore the material is organized with a problem-based approach - a practical example of product performance is presented and then the relevant mechanics are analyzed to deduce which material properties control the performance.

Web Machine Buying Guide

Author: David R. Roisum
Publisher: DEStech Publications, Inc
ISBN: 1605950114
Size: 60.15 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Written by one of the world's leading web handling expert and experienced machine designer along with a team of specialists, this hands-on book offers a step-by-step approach to investing in, acquiring and starting up web machinery. It is designed to assist plant-based personnel in the costing and planning of major machinery investment with a rigorous analysis of what needs to be done to acquire or replace equipment with minimal expense and maximum long-term efficiency, no matter what types of webs are being handled. The book ranges over the entire spectrum of machine buying from dealing with salespeople to the technical details of machinery design, contract formulation, financing and maintenance. Numerous case studies illustrate strategies to follow—and avoid—in purchasing standard, as well as custom designed, web machines. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- From the FOREWORD (by Craig Sheppard, Executive Director, AIMCAL) "The book offers excellent and practical advice on how to: · Define equipment needs and goals · Research the options · Prepare specifications and requests for quotes · Negotiate contracts · Make decisions based on facts · Examine options such as standard, custom and one-off designs or rebuilds The guide…explains what must be done for acceptance trials, startup and documentation. Other sections of the book examine expectations for the machine's first year and explore ways to address problems…"

Multilayer Flexible Packaging

Author: John R. Wagner, Jr.
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 0323477186
Size: 52.14 MB
Format: PDF
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Multilayer Flexible Packaging, Second Edition, provides a thorough introduction to the manufacturing and applications of flexible plastic films, covering materials, hardware and processes, and multilayer film designs and applications. The book gives engineers and technicians a better understanding of the capability and limitations of multilayer flexible films and how to use them to make effective packaging. It includes contributions from world renowned experts and is fully updated to reflect the rapid advances made in the field since 2009, also including an entirely new chapter on the use of bio-based polymers in flexible packaging. The result is a practical, but detailed reference for polymeric flexible packaging professionals, including product developers, process engineers, and technical service representatives. The materials coverage includes detailed sections on polyethylene, polypropylene, and additives. The dies used to produce multilayer films are explored in the hardware section, and the process engineering of film manufacture is explained, with a particular focus on meeting specifications and targets. In addition, a new chapter has been added on regulations for food packaging – including both FDA and EU regulations. Provides a complete introduction to multilayer flexible packaging, assisting plastics practitioners with the development, design, and manufacture of flexible packaging for food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and more Presents thorough, well-written, and up-to-date reviews of the current technology by experts in the field, making this an essential reference for any engineer or manager Includes discussion and analysis of the latest rules and regulations governing food packaging

Roll To Roll Vacuum Deposition Of Barrier Coatings

Author: Charles A. Bishop
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118031803
Size: 51.30 MB
Format: PDF
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A practical, working guide to producing high quality barrier coatings Roll-to-Roll Vacuum Deposition of Barrier Coatings is a practical guide, providing the reader with basic information to help them understand what is necessary in order to produce a good barrier coated web or to improve the quality of an existing barrier product. Keeping mathematics to a minimum, the terminology and science is introduced, and includes descriptions about barrier testing methods and the vacuum deposition process. The book looks at the whole process from the source materials through to the post deposition handling of the coated material. This holistic view of the vacuum coating process provides a description of the common sources of defects and includes the possible methods of limiting these defects. This enables readers to decide where their development efforts and money can best be used to improve the barrier performance of their own process or materials. Roll-to-Roll Vacuum Deposition of Barrier Coatings: Specifies the benefits and problems of producing vacuum deposited barrier coatings Explains why products designed by system operators might vary and how they can improve the quality and reproducibility of their products Describes the basic deposition process, limitations that may arise, and how they may be overcome Details why current barrier materials have limited performance and why it is so difficult and expensive to make improvements or to produce ultra barrier materials. This practical reference is invaluable to all readers using the roll-to-roll vacuum coating technology, including R&D scientists and engineers (process; product and process design), operators, technicians, line managers involved in producing vacuum deposited barrier coatings. It also serves the food packaging and medical packaging industries, along with any industry using Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs) such as electronics, solar energy and photovoltaics (PVs), thin film battery as well as vacuum insulation panels.

Regelung Elektrischer Antriebe

Author: Werner Leonhard
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642573282
Size: 79.90 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Leistungselektronisch gespeiste und mikroelektronisch geregelte elektrische Antriebe sind dynamisch hochwertige und universell einsetzbare elektromechanische Energiewandler, die heute in vielfältigen Ausführungsformen in weiten Bereichen von Drehmoment, Drehzahl und Leistung zur Verfügung stehen. Von besonderer Bedeutung sind kommutatorlose Drehstrom-Regelantriebe, die erst mit vektoriellen Verfahren und einer digital verwirklichten Regelungstechnik möglich wurden. Das Buch enthält eine zusammenfassende theoretische Darstellung elektrischer Regelantriebe einschließlich der leistungselektronischen Umrichter, von klassischen Gleichstromantrieben bis zu digital geregelten Drehstromantrieben. Die beschriebenen Verfahren werden durch experimentelle Ergebnisse belegt; Anwendungen sind anhand von Beispielen diskutiert.