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World Wide Weed

Author: Tom Decorte
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134785216
Size: 42.78 MB
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For the majority of its history, the cultivation of cannabis did not stand out, at least compared to the cultivation of other illegal plants. Cannabis plantations, like coca bush or opium poppy plantations, were typically large in size, grown by local farmers in a handful of developing (producing) countries, processed and then exported to industrial (consuming) nations. While cocaine and heroin are still produced in a handful of developing countries, cannabis cultivation is increasingly universal. From Europe to the Americas and Oceania, import substitution in cannabis markets has been noticed in almost every developed country around the world, with a notable aversion for discrimination. Geographical, technological, cultural and economic factors help to explain why (indoor and outdoor) domestic cultivation is well established, and why the nature and extent of cultivation varies so dramatically across the western, developed nations. As we start the second decade of the 21st century, the new cannabis industry continues to fascinate both casual and academic observers of the drug scene. Researchers around the world have become increasingly interested in the phenomenon, aiming to describe, and potentially explain, the rapid switch from importation to domestic production in their own countries. In bringing together some of the world's leading experts on cannabis cultivation this book contains sixteen chapters that take an interdisciplinary look at global trends in cannabis cultivation. It will serve as an exemplar for wider discussions of key theories and concepts relating to the spread not just of cannabis cultivation, but also of illegal markets more generally, the actors that operate within these markets and the policies and practices that are employed in response to developments within these markets.

Regulating Cannabis

Author: Tom Decorte
Publisher: Archway Publishing
ISBN: 1480861448
Size: 30.57 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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With the legalization of recreational cannabis markets in Uruguay, Canada, and several U.S. states, a breakthrough in conventional cannabis policy is emerging. But legalization is not a binary choice between prohibition and some regulated commercial model (like alcohol). A commercial market is just one of many ways to implement legalizationand moving directly from prohibition to commercial legalization leaps from one extreme to the other. Tom Decorte, a criminologist and anthropologist at Ghent University (Belgium), who has published numerous articles on substance use, cannabis markets, and local drug monitoring systems, argues that most of us are bypassing other, safer forms of legalization, including the nonprofit model. He explores topics such as: Why we need to consider regulation of cannabis markets. How local authorities and grassroots movements are advocating change. How to best design and implement approaches to legalization. Join the author as he examines international regulatory controls over cannabis possession, use, and cultivationas well as a framework for regulating the cannabis market via a nonprofit corporate model that promotes public health and safety over profits

Friendly Business

Author: Bernd Werse
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3658103299
Size: 69.76 MB
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Based on social research conducted in different countries in Europe, the U.S. and Australia, this anthology is the first to provide detailed insights into small-scale drug distribution. A main focus is the phenomenon of ‘social supply’, i.e. buying illicit drugs from friends, which covers a substantial part of the retail market. For cannabis users, cultivating their own plants is another important source. This volume deals with different social aspects of these non-profit-oriented forms of drug distribution, as well as profit-oriented small-scale dealing. While the illicit drug trade is commonly referred to as a world dominated by ruthless criminals, this book draws a different picture.

Killer Weed

Author: Susan C. Boyd
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 1442696591
Size: 26.76 MB
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Since the late 1990s, marijuana grow operations have been identified by media and others as a new and dangerous criminal activity of “epidemic” proportions. With Killer Weed, Susan C. Boyd and Connie Carter use their analysis of fifteen years of newspaper coverage to show how consensus about the dangerous people and practices associated with marijuana cultivation was created and disseminated by numerous spokespeople including police, RCMP, and the media in Canada. The authors focus on the context of media reports in Canada to show how claims about marijuana cultivation have intensified the perception that this activity poses “significant” dangers to public safety and thus is an appropriate target for Canada’s war on drugs. Boyd and Carter carefully show how the media draw on the same spokespeople to tell the same story again and again, and how a limited number of messages has led to an expanding anti-drug campaign that uses not only police, but BC Hydro and local municipalities to crack down on drug production. Going beyond the newspapers, Killer Weed examines how legal, political, and civil initiatives that have emerged from the media narrative have troubling consequences for a shrinking Canadian civil society.

Marijuana Legalization

Author: Jonathan P. Caulkins
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199942889
Size: 23.74 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Should marijuana be legalized? The latest Gallup poll reports that exactly half of Americans say "yes"; opinion couldn't be more evenly divided. Marijuana is forbidden by international treaties and by national and local laws across the globe. But those laws are under challenge in several countries. In the U.S., there is no short-term prospect for changes in federal law, but sixteen states allow medical use and recent initiatives to legalize production and non-medical use garnered more than 40% support in four states. California's Proposition 19 nearly passed in 2010, and multiple states are expected to consider similar measures in the years to come. The debate and media coverage surrounding Proposition 19 reflected profound confusion, both about the current state of the world and about the likely effects of changes in the law. In addition, not all supporters of "legalization" agree on what it is they want to legalize: Just using marijuana? Growing it? Selling it? Advertising it? If sales are to be legal, what regulations and taxes should apply? Different forms of legalization might have very different results. Marijuana Legalization: What Everyone Needs to Know® will provide readers with a non-partisan primer about the topic, covering everything from the risks and benefits of using marijuana, to describing the current laws around the drug in the U.S. and abroad. The authors discuss the likely costs and benefits of legalization at the state and national levels and walk readers through the "middle ground" of policy options between prohibition and commercialized production. The authors also consider how marijuana legalization could personally impact parents, heavy users, medical users, drug traffickers, and employers. What Everyone Needs to Know® is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press.

Social Networks Terrorism And Counter Terrorism

Author: Martin Bouchard
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317573269
Size: 33.89 MB
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This book examines two key themes in terrorism studies, the radicalization process and counter-terrorism policies, through the lens of social networks. The book aims to show that networks should be at the forefront not only when analysing terrorists, but also when assessing the responses to their actions. The volume makes a unique contribution by addressing two relatively new themes for terrorism studies. First it puts social relations and cooperation issues at the forefront – an approach often identified as crucial to future breakthroughs in the field. Second, many contributions tackle the role of the Internet in the process of radicalization and in recruitment more generally, a highly debated topic in the field today. In addition, the book provides a valuable mix of review essays, critical essays, and original empirical studies. This balanced approach is also found in the topics covered by the authors, as well as their academic disciplines, which include sociology, computer science, geography, history, engineering, and criminology as well as political science. Many of the true advances in terrorism studies depend on the successful collaboration of multi-disciplinary teams, each with a different set of methodological and conceptual tools. This volume reflects the newfound diversity in this field and is a true product of its time. This book will be of much interest to students of terrorism studies, social networks, security studies, sociology, criminology and international relations in general.

Handbook Of Cannabis And Related Pathologies

Author: Victor R. Preedy
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 012800827X
Size: 23.62 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies: Biology, Pharmacology, Diagnosis, and Treatment is the first book to take an interdisciplinary approach to the understanding of cannabis use and misuse. Recent worldwide trends toward decriminalizing marijuana for medical use have increased legal use of the drug and recreational use remains high, making cannabis one of the most commonly used drugs. Cannabis has a wide range of adverse neurological effects, and use and abuse can lead to physical, social, and psychopathological issues that are multifarious and complex. Effective understanding and treatment requires knowledge of the drug’s effects from across scientific disciplines. This book provides an overview of the biological and pharmacological components of the cannabis plant, outlines its neurological, social, and psychopathological effects, assists in the diagnosis and screening for use and dependency, and aids researchers in developing effective treatments for cannabis-related issues and disorders. Fully illustrated, with contributions from internationally recognized experts, it is the go-to resource for neuroscientists, pharmacologists, pathologists, public-health workers, and any other researcher who needs an in-depth and cross-disciplinary understanding of cannabis and its effects. Comprehensive chapters include an abstract, key facts, mini dictionary of terms, and summary points Presents illustrations with at least six figures, tables, and diagrams per chapter Provides a one-stop-shopping synopsis of everything to do with cannabis and its related pathology, from chemicals and cells, individuals and communities, and diagnosis and treatment Offers an integrated and informed synopsis of the complex issues surrounding cannabis as a substance, its use, and its misuse

Weed Need And Greed

Author: Gary Richard Potter
Publisher: Free Assn Books
ISBN: 9781853432033
Size: 69.69 MB
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Weed, Need and Greed explores the phenomenon of domestic cannabis cultivation and examines its impact on the wider cannabis market. Drawing predominantly on 10 years of ethnographic research with cannabis growers, the result is a description of cannabis cultivation, and cannabis cultivators, in the industrialised world. The book explores how cannabis is grown. Most cannabis in Western countries is grown indoors with increasingly hi-tech cultivation methods being utilised. The methods employed by individual growers will depend on their opportunities, their intentions, and, importantly, any ideological position which may influence their choice. It also explores who is involved in cannabis growing. Growers come from a wide range of backgrounds, but many share common `ideological' traits that are rooted in an affiliation to a wider cannabis culture. A typology of cannabis growers is offered based on motivation and ideology. The key point here is that a large number of cannabis growers seek no financial reward whatsoever for their involvement in what is essentially an act of drug trafficking. Other growers do make money, but are equally motivated by non-financial `drivers'. Still others are mostly or entirely driven by financial considerations. These growers often display the same hallmarks as other drug-trafficking outfits. Consumer concerns can be seen to influence the market with smaller independent `social' and `social/commerical' growers offering an ideological - ethical, even-alternative to larger scale organised crime outfits. Finally, explanations for the recent surges in domestic cannabis cultivation seen all over the Western world are offered along with predictions for the future of domestic production not just of cannabis but other drugs as well.

The Oxford Handbook Of Organized Crime

Author: Letizia Paoli
Publisher: Oxford University Press (UK)
ISBN: 019973044X
Size: 59.30 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The Oxford Handbook of Organized Crime provides an informed, authoritative, and comprehensive overview of current knowledge about the nature and effects of the principal forms of organized crime, as well as the type and effectiveness of efforts to prevent and control them. Reflecting the transnational dimensions of criminal organizations and their activities, and the growing role of international organizations reacting to organized crime, The Handbook takes a global perspective with first-rate contributions from around the world covering the main regions and countries in which organized crime activity is at its greatest. It is divided into four sections: concepts and research methods, actors and interactions, markets and activities, and, finally, national and international policies to fight criminal organizations. While there are a number of organized crime texts available, none delivers a systematic, high-quality and truly global approach to the topic as is available inThe Oxford Handbook of Organized Crime. Its insights illuminate both traditional areas of study in the field and pathways for developing cutting-edge research questions.