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Yankee Leviathan

Author: Richard Franklin Bensel
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139935852
Size: 20.54 MB
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This book describes the impact of the American Civil War on the development of central state authority in the late nineteenth century. The author contends that intense competition for control of the national political economy between the free North and slave South produced secession, which in turn spawned the formation of two new states, a market-oriented northern Union and a southern Confederacy in which government controls on the economy were much more important. During the Civil War, the American state both expanded and became the agent of northern economic development. After the war ended, however, tension within the Republican coalition led to the abandonment of Reconstruction and to the return of former Confederates to political power throughout the South. As a result, American state expansion ground to a halt during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This book makes a major contribution to the understanding of the causes and consequences of the Civil War and the legacy of the war in the twentieth century.

The Nature Of History Reader

Author: Keith Jenkins
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 0415240549
Size: 61.37 MB
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The question of what the nature of history is, is now a key issue for all students of history. It is now recognised by many that the past and history are different phenomena and that the way the past is actively historicised can be highly problematic and contested. Older metaphysical, ontological, epistemological, methodological and ethical assumptions can no longer be taken as read. In this timely collection, key pieces of writing by leading historians are reproduced and evaluated, with an explanation and critique of their character and assumptions, and how they reflect upon the nature of the history project. The authors respond to the view that the nature of history has become so disparate in assumption, approach and practice as to require an informed guide that is both self-reflexive, engaged, critical and innovative. This work seeks to aid a positive re-thinking of history today, and will be of use both to students and to their teachers.

Slavocrat Und Yankee

Author: Michael Koch
Publisher: Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh
ISBN: 365776643X
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Die Untersuchung von Feindbildern zwischen Nord- und Südstaaten bietet einen völlig neuen Blick auf die Entstehungsgeschichte des Amerikanischen Bürgerkriegs. Als freie Staaten und Sklavenstaaten zur Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts über die Vorherrschaft in der amerikanischen Union stritten, heizten intersektionale Feindbilder die Lage zusätzlich auf. Im Süden wurden vermutete Eigenschaften der "Yankees", etwa materielle Gier sowie eine Neigung zu Heuchelei und Fanatismus, als Bedrohung für die eigene Sicherheit wahrgenommen. Nordstaatler hetzten wiederum gegen Sklavenhalter, die sie für brutale, faule und zutiefst unamerikanische Aristokraten hielten. Diese Feindbilder untergruben das gegenseitige Vertrauen und führten das Land in einen blutigen Bürgerkrieg.

Bellizismus Und Nation

Author: Jörn Leonhard
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3486707280
Size: 20.87 MB
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Alle politischen Begriffe und Vorstellungen beziehen sich nach Carl Schmitt auf die politische Unterscheidung von Freund und Feind, deren letzte Konsequenz sich in Krieg oder Revolution äußere. Aber was erlaubte es dem Staat, unter Rückgriff auf die Legitimationsformel der Nation Millionen seiner Bürger in den Krieg zu schicken? Vor dem Hintergrund dieser Frage untersucht Jörn Leonhard Ursprung, Wandel und Vielfalt der aus der Erfahrung kriegerischer Gewalt hervorgegangenen nationalen Legitimationsmuster. Auf synchroner Ebene stellt er Frankreich, Deutschland, Großbritannien und die Vereinigten Staaten in der longue durée vom Siebenjährigen Krieg bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg systematisch-vergleichend gegenüber. Das Werk wurde 2006 mit dem Werner-Hahlweg-Preis ausgezeichnet.

Das Milit R Und Der Aufbruch In Die Moderne 1860 Bis 1890

Author: Michael Epkenhans
Publisher: Oldenbourg Verlag
ISBN: 3486596268
Size: 63.63 MB
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Das Zeitalter zwischen 1850 und 1890 war eine Epoche des Übergangs: Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft, Staat und Staatensystem, Kultur und Religion machen - anknüpfend an die Ideen der Aufklärung und der Französischen Revolution sowie in Folge des endgültigen Durchbruchs der Industriellen Revolution - einen revolutionären Wandlungsprozess durch. Die Frage, wie das Militär im europäischen und internationalen Vergleich diesen Herausforderungen begegnete, wird im vorliegenden Sammelband - der auf die gemeinsam von der Otto-von-Bismarck-Stiftung und dem Militärgeschichtlichen Forschungsamt durchgeführte 44. Internationale Tagung für Militärgeschichte zurückgeht - von Historikern aus dem In- und Ausland thematisiert. Die Herausgeber Dr. Michael Epkenhans, Geschäftsführer der Otto-von-Bismarck-Stiftung, Friedrichsruh Dr. Gerhard P. Groß, Oberstleutnant i.G., Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Militärgeschichtlichen Forschungsamt, Potsdam Inhalt Einführung Michael Epkenhans und Gerhard P. Groß, Das Militär und der Aufbruch in die Moderne Hans-Ulrich Wehler, Der Aufbruch in die Moderne 1860 bis 1890. Armee, Marine und Politik in Europa, den USA und Japan I. Militär und Politik Winfried Baumgart, Einführende Bemerkungen Konrad Canis, Militärführung und Grundfragen der Außenpolitik in Deutschland 1860 bis 1890 William Philpott, Großbritannien: Regierung, Militär und Empire von 1860 bis 1890 Frédéric Guelton, Die politische Macht und die Armee zu Beginn der Dritten Republik 1871 bis 1881 Nikolaus Katzer, Russische Regierung und Militär zwischen Krimkriegstrauma und imperialer Expansion Lothar Höbelt, Kein Bismarck und kein Moltke: Regierung, Militär und Außenpolitik in Österreich-Ungarn 1860 bis 1890 Dirk Bönker, Zwischen Bürgerkrieg und Navalismus: Marinepolitik und Handelsimperialismus in den USA 1865 bis 1890 II. Militär und gesellschaftlicher Wandel Stig Förster, Einführende Bemerkungen Frank Becker, Synthetischer Militarismus. Die Einigungskriege und der Stellenwert des Militärischen in der deutschen Gesellschaft Erwin A. Schmidl, Die k.u.k. Armee: integrierendes Element eines zerfallenden Staates Jan Kusber, Die russische Armee als innenpolitischer Ordnungsfaktor in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts Jörg Nagler, Militär und Gesellschaft in den USA 1860 bis 1890 Junichiro Shoji, Die Beziehung zwischen Politik und Militärwesen im japanischen Modernisierungsprozeß des 19. Jahrhunderts III. Militär und technologischer Wandel Bernd Jürgen Wendt, Einführende Bemerkungen Dieter Storz, Modernes Infanteriegewehr und taktische Reform in Deutschland in der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts Günther Kronenbitter, Armeerüstung und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung in Österreich(-Ungarn) 1860 bis 1890 Andrew Lambert, Wirtschaftliche Macht, technologischer Vorsprung und imperiale Stärke: Großbritannien als einzigartige globale Macht 1860 bis 1890 Kurt Hackemer, Marinetechnologie und wirtschaftlicher Aufschwung in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika 1860 bis 1890 IV. Das Militärmuseum als moderner Lernort: Visualisierung von Militärgeschichte Manfried Rauchensteiner, Einführende Bemerkungen Nigel Rigby, Die Darstellung kriegerischer Auseinandersetzungen im National Maritime Museum Ernst Aichner, Die Visualisierung von Militärgeschichte am Beispiel des Bayerischen Armeemuseums A. Wilson Greene, Die Entscheidungsschlacht von Petersburg: Das Zusammenspiel von Militärgeschichte und Museumspädagogik an einem historischen Ort

The Forging Of Bureaucratic Autonomy

Author: Daniel P. Carpenter
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691070100
Size: 19.44 MB
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Until now political scientists have devoted little attention to the origins of American bureaucracy and the relationship between bureaucratic and interest group politics. In this pioneering book, Daniel Carpenter contributes to our understanding of institutions by presenting a unified study of bureaucratic autonomy in democratic regimes. He focuses on the emergence of bureaucratic policy innovation in the United States during the Progressive Era, asking why the Post Office Department and the Department of Agriculture became politically independent authors of new policy and why the Interior Department did not. To explain these developments, Carpenter offers a new theory of bureaucratic autonomy grounded in organization theory, rational choice models, and network concepts. According to the author, bureaucracies with unique goals achieve autonomy when their middle-level officials establish reputations among diverse coalitions for effectively providing unique services. These coalitions enable agencies to resist political control and make it costly for politicians to ignore the agencies' ideas. Carpenter assesses his argument through a highly innovative combination of historical narratives, statistical analyses, counterfactuals, and carefully structured policy comparisons. Along the way, he reinterprets the rise of national food and drug regulation, Comstockery and the Progressive anti-vice movement, the emergence of American conservation policy, the ascent of the farm lobby, the creation of postal savings banks and free rural mail delivery, and even the congressional Cannon Revolt of 1910.

Building The Judiciary

Author: Justin Crowe
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400842573
Size: 48.54 MB
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How did the federal judiciary transcend early limitations to become a powerful institution of American governance? How did the Supreme Court move from political irrelevance to political centrality? Building the Judiciary uncovers the causes and consequences of judicial institution-building in the United States from the commencement of the new government in 1789 through the close of the twentieth century. Explaining why and how the federal judiciary became an independent, autonomous, and powerful political institution, Justin Crowe moves away from the notion that the judiciary is exceptional in the scheme of American politics, illustrating instead how it is subject to the same architectonic politics as other political institutions. Arguing that judicial institution-building is fundamentally based on a series of contested questions regarding institutional design and delegation, Crowe develops a theory to explain why political actors seek to build the judiciary and the conditions under which they are successful. He both demonstrates how the motivations of institution-builders ranged from substantive policy to partisan and electoral politics to judicial performance, and details how reform was often provoked by substantial changes in the political universe or transformational entrepreneurship by political leaders. Embedding case studies of landmark institution-building episodes within a contextual understanding of each era under consideration, Crowe presents a historically rich narrative that offers analytically grounded explanations for why judicial institution-building was pursued, how it was accomplished, and what--in the broader scheme of American constitutional democracy--it achieved.

An Uncommon Time

Author: Paul Alan Cimbala
Publisher: Fordham Univ Press
ISBN: 9780823221950
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A collection of new essays on the Civil War paints a vivid portrait of life in the Northern states, revealing the many effects of the conflict on the lives of ordinary people. (History)

The Lovers Quarrel

Author: Elvin T. Lim
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019932395X
Size: 78.36 MB
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The United States has had not one, but two Foundings. The Constitution produced by the Second Founding came to be only after a vociferous battle between Federalists and Anti-Federalists. The Federalists favored a relatively powerful central government, while the Anti-Federalists distrusted the concentration of power in one place and advocated the preservation of sovereignty in the states as crucibles of post-revolutionary republicanism -- the legacy of the First Founding. This philosophical cleavage has been at the heart of practically every major political conflict in U.S. history, and lives on today in debates between modern liberals and conservatives. In The Lovers' Quarrel, Elvin T. Lim presents a systematic and innovative analysis of this perennial struggle. The framers of the second Constitution, the Federalists, were not operating in an ideational or institutional vacuum; rather, the document they drafted and ratified was designed to remedy the perceived flaws of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union. To decouple the Two Foundings is to appreciate that there is no such thing as "original meaning," only original dissent. Because the Anti-Federalists insisted that prior and democratically sanctioned understandings of federalism and union had to be negotiated and partially grafted onto the new Constitution, the Constitution's Articles and the Bill of Rights do not cohere as well together as has conventionally been thought. Rather, they represent two antithetical orientations toward power, liberty, and republicanism. The altercation over the necessity of the Second Founding generated coherent and self-contained philosophies that would become the core of American political thought, reproduced and transmitted across two centuries, whether the victors were the neo-Federalists (such as during the Civil War and the New Deal) or the neo-Anti-Federalists (such as during the Jacksonian era and the Reagan Revolution). The Second Founding -- the sole "founding" that we generally speak of -- would become a template for the unique, prototypically American species of politics and political debate. Because of it, American political development occurs only after the political entrepreneurs of each generation lock horns in a Lovers' Quarrel about the principles of one of the Two Foundings, and succeed in justifying and forging a durable expansion or contraction of federal authority.

Empire S Twin

Author: Ian Tyrrell
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801455693
Size: 78.70 MB
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Across the course of American history, imperialism and anti-imperialism have been awkwardly paired as influences on the politics, culture, and diplomacy of the United States. The Declaration of Independence, after all, is an anti-imperial document, cataloguing the sins of the metropolitan government against the colonies. With the Revolution, and again in 1812, the nation stood against the most powerful empire in the world and declared itself independent. As noted by Ian Tyrrell and Jay Sexton, however, American "anti-imperialism was clearly selective, geographically, racially, and constitutionally." Empire's Twin broadens our conception of anti-imperialist actors, ideas, and actions; it charts this story across the range of American history, from the Revolution to our own era; and it opens up the transnational and global dimensions of American anti-imperialism. By tracking the diverse manifestations of American anti-imperialism, this book highlights the different ways in which historians can approach it in their research and teaching. The contributors cover a wide range of subjects, including the discourse of anti-imperialism in the Early Republic and Civil War, anti-imperialist actions in the U.S. during the Mexican Revolution, the anti-imperial dimensions of early U.S. encounters in the Middle East, and the transnational nature of anti-imperialist public sentiment during the Cold War and beyond. Contributors: Laura Belmonte, Oklahoma State University; Robert Buzzanco, University of Houston; Julian Go, Boston University; Alan Knight, University of Oxford; Ussama Makdisi, Rice University; Erez Manela, Harvard University; Peter Onuf, Robert H. Smith International Center for Jefferson Studies, Monticello, and University of Virginia; Jeffrey Ostler, University of Oregon; Patricia Schechter, Portland State University; Jay Sexton, University of Oxford; Ian Tyrrell, University of New South Wales