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A Concise Guide To Statistics

Author: Hans-Michael Kaltenbach
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642235023
Size: 12.86 MB
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The text gives a concise introduction into fundamental concepts in statistics. Chapter 1: Short exposition of probability theory, using generic examples. Chapter 2: Estimation in theory and practice, using biologically motivated examples. Maximum-likelihood estimation in covered, including Fisher information and power computations. Methods for calculating confidence intervals and robust alternatives to standard estimators are given. Chapter 3: Hypothesis testing with emphasis on concepts, particularly type-I , type-II errors, and interpreting test results. Several examples are provided. T-tests are used throughout, followed important other tests and robust/nonparametric alternatives. Multiple testing is discussed in more depth, and combination of independent tests is explained. Chapter 4: Linear regression, with computations solely based on R. Multiple group comparisons with ANOVA are covered together with linear contrasts, again using R for computations.

Statistics In Food Science And Nutrition

Author: Are Hugo Pripp
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461450098
Size: 43.15 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Many statistical innovations are linked to applications in food science. For example, the student t-test (a statistical method) was developed to monitor the quality of stout at the Guinness Brewery and multivariate statistical methods are applied widely in the spectroscopic analysis of foods. Nevertheless, statistical methods are most often associated with engineering, mathematics, and the medical sciences, and are rarely thought to be driven by food science. Consequently, there is a dearth of statistical methods aimed specifically at food science, forcing researchers to utilize methods intended for other disciplines. The objective of this Brief will be to highlight the most needed and relevant statistical methods in food science and thus eliminate the need to learn about these methods from other fields. All methods and their applications will be illustrated with examples from research literature. ​

Human Subject Research For Engineers

Author: Joost C.F. de Winter
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319569643
Size: 64.89 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This Brief introduces engineers to the main principles in ethics, research design, statistics, and publishing of human subject research. In recent years, engineering has become strongly connected to disciplines such as biology, medicine, and psychology. Often, engineers (and engineering students) are expected to perform human subject research. Typical human subject research topics conducted by engineers include human-computer interaction (e.g., evaluating the usability of software), exoskeletons, virtual reality, teleoperation, modelling of human behaviour and decision making (often within the framework of ‘big data’ research), product evaluation, biometrics, behavioural tracking (e.g., of work and travel patterns, or mobile phone use), transport and planning (e.g., an analysis of flows or safety issues), etc. Thus, it can be said that knowledge on how to do human subject research is indispensable for a substantial portion of engineers. Engineers are generally well trained in calculus and mechanics, but may lack the appropriate knowledge on how to do research with human participants. In order to do high-quality human subject research in an ethical manner, several guidelines have to be followed and pitfalls have to be avoided. This book discusses these guidelines and pitfalls. The aim is to prepare engineers and engineering students to carry out independent research in a responsible manner.

Key Statistical Concepts In Clinical Trials For Pharma

Author: J. Rick Turner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461416623
Size: 28.28 MB
Format: PDF
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This Brief discusses key statistical concepts that facilitate the inferential analysis of data collected from a group of individuals participating in a pharmaceutical clinical trial, the estimation of their clinical significance in the general population of individuals likely to be prescribed the drug if approved, and the related decision-making that occurs at both the public health level (by regulatory agencies when deciding whether or not to approve a new drug for marketing) and the individual patient level (by physicians and their patients when deciding whether or not the patient should be prescribed a drug that is on the market). These concepts include drug safety and efficacy, statistical significance, clinical significance, and benefit-risk balance.

Survival Analysis With Correlated Endpoints

Author: Takeshi Emura
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811335168
Size: 21.16 MB
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This book introduces readers to advanced statistical methods for analyzing survival data involving correlated endpoints. In particular, it describes statistical methods for applying Cox regression to two correlated endpoints by accounting for dependence between the endpoints with the aid of copulas. The practical advantages of employing copula-based models in medical research are explained on the basis of case studies. In addition, the book focuses on clustered survival data, especially data arising from meta-analysis and multicenter analysis. Consequently, the statistical approaches presented here employ a frailty term for heterogeneity modeling. This brings the joint frailty-copula model, which incorporates a frailty term and a copula, into a statistical model. The book also discusses advanced techniques for dealing with high-dimensional gene expressions and developing personalized dynamic prediction tools under the joint frailty-copula model. To help readers apply the statistical methods to real-world data, the book provides case studies using the authors' original R software package (freely available in CRAN). The emphasis is on clinical survival data, involving time-to-tumor progression and overall survival, collected on cancer patients. Hence, the book offers an essential reference guide for medical statisticians and provides researchers with advanced, innovative statistical tools. The book also provides a concise introduction to basic multivariate survival models.

Behavioral Analysis Of Maternal Filicide

Author: Joy Lynn E. Shelton
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319081500
Size: 59.48 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Maternal filicide has been discussed in the medical, mental health, and child abuse fields, yet little research exists with a criminal justice/law enforcement perspective. Nevertheless, criminal justice professionals responsible for investigation and prosecution of these offenders often must give attention to unique behavioral, social, and psychological dynamics not considered in many other types of cases. The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) Behavioral Analysis Unit (BAU) III – Crimes Against Children identified, collected, and reviewed law enforcement case files in which a biological mother killed her child(ren). Collectively, the cases involve 213 biological mothers who killed 265 children, and are comprised of neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide cases. Data analysis revealed that the offenders ranged in age from 12-46 years, and many were unmarried, unemployed, and had a history of violence. Many of the victims were three years of age or younger, did not live with their biological fathers at the time of their deaths, and had a history of maltreatment most often perpetrated by their mothers. In addition, traditional weapons such as a firearm or knife were used less often compared to asphyxiants and blunt force instruments. The authors explore the tenets of female violence, the mother-child dynamic and mental disorders, and address the complexities associated with investigating and prosecuting maternal filicide offenders. ​

Solving Pdes In Python

Author: Hans Petter Langtangen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319524623
Size: 35.23 MB
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This book offers a concise and gentle introduction to finite element programming in Python based on the popular FEniCS software library. Using a series of examples, including the Poisson equation, the equations of linear elasticity, the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations, and systems of nonlinear advection–diffusion–reaction equations, it guides readers through the essential steps to quickly solving a PDE in FEniCS, such as how to define a finite variational problem, how to set boundary conditions, how to solve linear and nonlinear systems, and how to visualize solutions and structure finite element Python programs. This book is open access under a CC BY license.