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Alternative Fuels For Transportation

Author: A S Ramadhas
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439819580
Size: 49.57 MB
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With existing petroleum oil and natural gas reserves enough for only several more decades, there is an imminent need for alternative energy sources. This critical situation has incited greater improvements in automotive technology and the increased use of nonconventional fuels. Alternative Fuels for Transportation covers the potential, production methods, properties, vehicle tests, merits, and drawbacks of alternative fuels. The esteemed editor highlights the importance of moving toward alternative fuels and the problems and environmental impact of depending on petroleum products. Each self-contained chapter focuses on a particular fuel source, including vegetable oils, biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, hydrogen, electric, fuel cells, and fuel from nonfood crops. For most of these fuels, production methods, storage, transportation and distribution, physiochemical properties, system modification, engine tests, economics, applications, safety aspects, material compatibility, and future scope are discussed. Although we now know that increases in greenhouse gases will contribute to global climate change, the transportation sector and decentralized power generation continue to heavily rely on petroleum products, particularly gasoline and diesel. Exploring how to counteract the world’s energy insecurity and environmental pollution, this book provides a comprehensive understanding of nonconventional fuel sources and technology.

Technologies And Approaches To Reducing The Fuel Consumption Of Medium And Heavy Duty Vehicles

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309149827
Size: 62.64 MB
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Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles evaluates various technologies and methods that could improve the fuel economy of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, transit buses, and work trucks. The book also recommends approaches that federal agencies could use to regulate these vehicles' fuel consumption. Currently there are no fuel consumption standards for such vehicles, which account for about 26 percent of the transportation fuel used in the U.S. The miles-per-gallon measure used to regulate the fuel economy of passenger cars. is not appropriate for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, which are designed above all to carry loads efficiently. Instead, any regulation of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles should use a metric that reflects the efficiency with which a vehicle moves goods or passengers, such as gallons per ton-mile, a unit that reflects the amount of fuel a vehicle would use to carry a ton of goods one mile. This is called load-specific fuel consumption (LSFC). The book estimates the improvements that various technologies could achieve over the next decade in seven vehicle types. For example, using advanced diesel engines in tractor-trailers could lower their fuel consumption by up to 20 percent by 2020, and improved aerodynamics could yield an 11 percent reduction. Hybrid powertrains could lower the fuel consumption of vehicles that stop frequently, such as garbage trucks and transit buses, by as much 35 percent in the same time frame.

Low Energy Low Carbon Architecture

Author: Khaled Al-Sallal
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315624028
Size: 18.70 MB
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Providing a complete and in-depth overview of the available knowledge in the area of low energy and low carbon architecture. The scope of this edited book includes several important topics ranging from chapters giving a broad view of the progressing models in ecologically responsible environments to other chapters focussing on recent advances in design strategies and building technologies in low energy heating, cooling, daylighting, materials, and building sustainable systems. Two other essential topics are covered, providing a link between theory and implementation: sustainable energy policies/standards and performance modeling in low energy architecture. Finally, the book will give the readers insight into the future of low energy and low carbon architecture in the beyond-green era and discussed in the broader context of the progressing theories of regenerative design.

Green Aviation

Author: Emily S. Nelson
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1136318194
Size: 14.79 MB
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Aircraft emissions currently account for ~3.5% of all greenhouse gas emissions. The number of passenger miles has increased by 5% annually despite 9/11, two wars and gloomy economic conditions. Since aircraft have no viable alternative to the internal combustion engine, improvements in aircraft efficiency and alternative fuel development become essential. This book comprehensively covers the relevant issues in green aviation. Environmental impacts, technology advances, public policy and economics are intricately linked to the pace of development that will be realized in the coming decades. Experts from NASA, industry and academia review current technology development in green aviation that will carry the industry through 2025 and beyond. This includes increased efficiency through better propulsion systems, reduced drag airframes, advanced materials and operational changes. Clean combustion and emission control of noise, exhaust gases and particulates are also addressed through combustor design and the use of alternative fuels. Economic imperatives from aircraft lifetime and maintenance logistics dictate the drive for "drop-in" fuels, blending jet-grade and biofuel. New certification standards for alternative fuels are outlined. Life Cycle Assessments are used to evaluate worldwide biofuel approaches, highlighting that there is no single rational approach for sustainable buildup. In fact, unless local conditions are considered, the use of biofuels can create a net increase in environmental impact as a result of biofuel manufacturing processes. Governmental experts evaluate current and future regulations and their impact on green aviation. Sustainable approaches to biofuel development are discussed for locations around the globe, including the US, EU, Brazil, China and India.

Review Of The Research Program Of The Freedomcar And Fuel Partnership

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309181457
Size: 74.33 MB
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The FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership is a collaborative effort among the Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR), and five major energy companies to manage research that will enable the vision of "a clean and sustainable transportation energy future." It envisions a transition from more efficient internal combustion engines (ICEs), to advanced ICE hybrid electric vehicles, to enabling a private-sector decision by 2015 on hydrogen-fueled vehicle development. This report, which builds on an earlier NRC report, The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs, presents an evaluation of the Partnership’s research efforts on hydrogen-fueled transportation systems, and provides findings and recommendations about technical directions, strategies, funding, and management.

Assessment Of Hydrogen Energy For Sustainable Development

Author: John W. Sheffield
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402064401
Size: 68.19 MB
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Fossil fuel prices continue to rise and, at the same time, environmental policies are demanding a reduction in greenhouse gases and toxic emissions. A coherent energy strategy is needed: one that addresses both energy supply and demand and takes into account the whole energy lifecycle, from fuel production to the end-users of energy systems. This book examines hydrogen energy technologies and infrastructure development.

Review Of The Research Program Of The Partnership For A New Generation Of Vehicles

Author: Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309170524
Size: 42.72 MB
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This is the most recent report of the National Research Council’s Standing Committee to Review the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), which has conducted annual reviews of the PNGV program since it was established in late 1993. The PNGV is a cooperative R&D program between the federal government and the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR, whose members are DaimlerChrysler, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors) to develop technologies for a new generation of automobiles with up to three times the fuel economy of a 1993 midsize automobile. The reports review major technology development areas (four-stroke direct-injection engines, fuel cells, energy storage, electronic/electrical systems, and structural materials); the overall adequacy of R&D efforts; the systems analysis effort and how it guides decisions on R&D; the progress toward long-range component and system-level cost and performance goals; and efforts in vehicle emissions and advanced materials research and how results target goals. Unlike previous reports, the Seventh Report comments on the goals of the program, since the automotive market and U.S. emission standards have changed significantly since the program was initiated.