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Applied Energy

Author: Mohammad Omar Abdullah
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466576081
Size: 11.80 MB
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Written in clear, concise language and designed for an introductory applied energy course, Applied Energy: An Introduction discusses energy applications in small-medium enterprises, solar energy, hydro and wind energy, nuclear energy, hybrid energy, and energy sustainability issues. Focusing on renewable energy technologies, energy conversion, and conservation and the energy industry, the author lists the key aspects of applied energy and related studies, taking a question-based approach to the material that is useful for both undergraduate students and postgraduates who want a broad overview of energy conversion. The author carefully designed the text to motivate students and give them the foundation they need to place the concepts presented into a real-world context. He begins with an introduction to the basics and the definitions used throughout the book. From there, he covers the energy industry and energy applications; energy sources, supply, and demand; and energy management, policy, plans, and analysis. Building on this, the author elucidates various energy saving technologies and energy storage methods, explores the pros and cons of fossil fuels and alternative energy sources, and examines the various types of applications of alternative energies. The book concludes with chapters on hybrid energy technology, hybrid energy schemes, other energy conversion methods, and applied energy issues. The book takes advantage of practical and application-based learning, presenting the information in various forms such as essential notes followed by practical projects, assignments, and objective and practical questions. In each chapter, a small section introduces some elements of applied energy design and innovation, linking knowledge with applied energy design and practice. The comprehensive coverage gives students the skills not only to master the concepts in the course, but also apply them to future work in this area.

Recent Modelling Approaches In Applied Energy Economics

Author: O. Bjerkholt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401130884
Size: 74.17 MB
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construction. Naturally, we are open to suggestions from all readers of, and contributors to, the series regarding its approach and content. Finally, I would like to thank all those who have helped the launch of this series. The encouraging response received from authors who have contributed the forthcoming volumes and from the subscribers to the series has indicated the need for such a publication. Homa Motamen-Scobi London December 1987 Preface In 1990 both OPEC and the OECD will celebrate their thirtieth anntvers aries. OPEC was founded - rather unnoticed - by oil-producing countries still struggling to gain control over national petroleum resources. Future members were still under colonial rule. The foremost aim of the new organization - years before it was able to make metropolitan newspaper headlines - was stabilizing oil prices. Stability in those days meant prevent ing oil prices from falling in real terms. The OECD was formed by mostly mature industrial economies marking the normalization of the postwar international economy after years of reconstruction, strict trade regulations, etc. The aim of the new organization was to promote 'the highest sustainable growth and employment' in member countries. Incidentally, 1960 was also the year which gave birth to a more loosely defined block in the world community, namely the underdeveloped countries, qS the African colonial empires finally broke up. The two organizations became adversaries in the 1970s in the power struggle over the energy flows of the world.

Prospective Evaluation Of Applied Energy Research And Development At Doe Phase One

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309096049
Size: 76.53 MB
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In 2001, the National Research Council (NRC) completed a congressionally mandated assessment of the benefits and costs of DOE’s fossil energy and energy efficiency R&D programs, Energy Research at DOE: Was It Worth It? The Congress followed this retrospective study by directing DOE to request the NRC to develop a methodology for assessing prospective benefits. The first phase of this projectâ€"development of the methodologyâ€"began in December 2003. Phase two will make the methodology more robust and explore related issues, and subsequent phases will apply the methodology to review the prospective benefits of different DOE fossil energy and energy efficiency R&D programs. In developing this project, three considerations were particularly important. First, the study should adapt the work of the retrospective study. Second, the project should develop a methodology that provides a rigorous calculation of benefits and risks, and a practical and consistent process for its application. Third, the methodology should be transparent, should not require extensive resources for implementation, and should produce easily understood results. This report presents the results of phase one. It focuses on adaptation of the retrospective methodology to a prospective context.

Prospective Evaluation Of Applied Energy Research And Development At Doe Phase Two

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 030910467X
Size: 77.13 MB
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Since its inception in 1977 from an amalgam of federal authorities, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has administered numerous programs aimed at developing applied energy technologies. In recent years, federal oversight of public expenditures has emphasized the integration of performance and budgeting. Notably, the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) was passed in 1993 in response to questions about the value and effectiveness of federal programs. GPRA and other mandates have led agencies to develop indicators of program performance and program outcomes. The development of indicators has been watched with keen interest by Congress, which has requested of the National Research Council (NRC) a series of reports using quantitative indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of applied energy research and development (R&D). The first such report took a retrospective view of the first 3 years of DOE R&D programs on fossil energy and energy efficiency. The report found that DOE-sponsored research had netted large commercial successes, such as advanced refrigerator compressors, electronic lighting ballasts, and emission control technology for flue gas desulfurization. However, some programs were judged to be costly failures in which large R&D expenditures did not result in a commercial energy technology. A follow-up NRC committee was assigned the task of adapting the methodology to the assessment of the future payoff of continuing programs. Evaluating the outcome of R&D expenditures requires an analysis of program costs and benefits. Doing so is not a trivial matter. First, the analysis of costs and benefits must reflect the full range of public benefits that are envisioned, accounting for environmental and energy security impacts as well as economic effects. Second, the analysis must consider how likely the research is to succeed and how valuable the research will be if successful. Finally, the analysis must consider what might happen if the government did not support the project: Would some non-DOE entity undertake it or an equivalent activity that would produce some or all of the benefits of government involvement? This second report continues to investigate the development and use of R&D outcome indicators and applies the benefits evaluation methodology to six DOE R&D activities. It provides further definition for the development of indicators for environmental and security benefits and refines the evaluation process based on its experience with the six DOE R&D case studies.

An Introduction To Applied Statistical Thermodynamics

Author: Stanley I. Sandler
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470913479
Size: 65.18 MB
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!--[if gte mso 9] Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 ![endif]--!--[if gte mso 9] ![endif]-- !-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:"Cambria Math"; panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:roman; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-1610611985 1107304683 0 0 159 0;} @font-face {font-family:Calibri; panose-1:2 15 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:swiss; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-1610611985 1073750139 0 0 159 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:10.0pt; margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} .MsoChpDefault {mso-style-type:export-only; mso-default-props:yes; font-size:10.0pt; mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;} @page WordSection1 {size:8.5in 11.0in; margin:1.0in 1.0in 1.0in 1.0in; mso-header-margin:.5in; mso-footer-margin:.5in; mso-paper-source:0;} div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;} -- !--[if gte mso 10] ![endif]--One of the goals of An Introduction to Applied Statistical Thermodynamics is to introduce readers to the fundamental ideas and engineering uses of statistical thermodynamics, and the equilibrium part of the statistical mechanics. This text emphasizes on nano and bio technologies, molecular level descriptions and understandings offered by statistical mechanics. This book provides an introduction to the simplest forms of Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation (albeit only for simple spherical molecules) and user-friendly MATLAB programs for doing such simulations, and also some other calculations. The purpose of this book is to provide a readable introduction to statistical thermodynamics, show its utility and the way the results obtained lead to useful generalizations for practical application. The book also illustrates the difficulties that arise in the statistical thermodynamics of dense fluids as seen in the discussion of liquids.

Introduction To Global Energy Issues

Author: Renaud Gicquel
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203503260
Size: 80.70 MB
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From the discovery of fire to that of the atom, the development of human societies has largely been based on the conquest of energy. In all countries, energy has gradually become one of the key factors of social and economic development, as well as capital, labor and natural resources, and now no one can do without it. After decades of cheap energy flowing without any problem, over the last forty years crises have become the rule. This disruption of the energy landscape is of particular concern as the impact of energy crises on human societies became considerable. This book seeks to provide a basis for reflection on all global energy problems, offering an analysis of the main aspects to consider: energy supply, resource-dependent industries and technology available, macroeconomic implications of energy demand, geopolitical issues, and specifics of the situation in developing countries. It does not thoroughly address environmental issues, which would require further study beyond the limits we set. This book is the second edition of a book published in 1992, at a time when obtaining energy and economic data was much more difficult than today, when many databases are freely accessible on the Internet. In this new context, we hope it will assist the reader in finding his/her way in the considerable amount of information available. Energy is a vast field that can be approached from multiple angles. The approach proposed here is to start by providing the reader with technical bases on energy, and thus energy supply, before considering the demand, that is to say, the socio- and macro-economic dimensions, then addressing global issues relating to energy, and finally complete the study of the main issues that arise in this area today. This book summarizes the main issues related to energy and requires no special knowledge beforehand, whether in economics, engineering or international relations. It consists of nine chapters, the first being the introduction. Chapter 2 introduces the main energy sectors (oil, natural gas, coal, synthetic hydrocarbons, nuclear power, renewable energy, thermal or pneumatic storage), i.e. how the main sources of energy can be exploited. Chapter 3 presents the main macroeconomic and energy indicators that are commonly used to assess the energy situation in a country. Concepts that are introduced being then used consistently in other chapters, it is essential to understand well their definitions and limitations. The fourth chapter analyzes the impacts of energy at the macro level, including the links between economic activity and energy consumption. The fifth chapter introduces the main principles generally accepted in the development of energy policy and planning, and then discusses the institutional aspects. The sixth chapter is devoted to geopolitics: current consumption of energy, energy reserves and resources worldwide, international energy trade, and specific problems faced by developing countries. The seventh chapter is devoted to the study of the energy situation in eleven different countries, showing the contrast between them, depending on their level of economic development, demography, natural resource endowments, etc. The list of countries includes high-income developed countries (France, United States, United Kingdom), the emerging group called the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa), a North African oil exporting country (Algeria), a west African country (Côte d'Ivoire), and an Asian exporter of coal and natural gas (Indonesia). The eighth chapter discusses emerging issues related to energy, in particular its relationship to the environment and the success of policies aiming at controlling demand. The ninth and final chapter begins with a prospective study of various scenarios for the medium and long term. The analyses presented in the book are then summarized by outlining the main pending issues. The book includes 22 tables, 150 figures and 3 mind maps, as well as links to databases available online (World Bank, United Nations, BP). Also available: an online course covering the main topics dealt with in this book. Please visit: http://www.thermoptim.org/sections/enseignement/cours-en-ligne/modules-d-auto-formation/energy-issues-course

Applied Chemistry

Author: Oleg Roussak
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461442613
Size: 20.38 MB
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This updated edition of Gesser’s classic textbook has undergone a full revision and now has the latest material, including new chapters on semiconductors and nanotechnology. It includes a supplementary laboratory section with stepwise experimental protocols.

Introduction To Applied Thermodynamics

Author: R. M. Helsdon
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483149625
Size: 34.37 MB
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Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus on temperature, entropy, and standard air cycles, along with gas compressors, combustion, psychrometry, and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances. Steam and steam engines, internal combustion engines, and refrigeration are also considered. The final chapter is devoted to heat transfer by conduction, radiation, and convection. The transfer of heat energy between fluids flowing through concentric pipes is described. This book will appeal to mechanical engineers and students as well as those interested in applied thermodynamics.

Introduction To Applied Geophysics

Author: S. Mares
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789027714244
Size: 11.34 MB
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TO APPLIED GEOPHYSICS STANIS LAY MARE~, et al. Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague SPRINGER-SCIENCE+BUSINESS MEDIA, B. V. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Mares, Stanislav Introduction to applied geophysics Translation of Uvod do uzite geofyziky Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Geophysics. 2. Prospecting-Geophysical methods. I. Title QC802. A1M3713 1984 551 84-4753 ISBN 978-90-481-8374-6 ISBN 978-94-015-7684-0 (eBook) DOI 10. 1007/978-94-015-7684-0 AII Rights Reserved © 1984 by Stanislav Mard et al. Originally published by Kluwer Academic Publishers in 1984 Softcover reprint ofthe hardcover lst edition 1984 No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner CONTENTS XI INTRODUCTION LIST OF PRINCIPAL SYMBOLS AND UNITS USED XIII CHAPTER I. GRAVIMETRIC METHODS (S. Hrach) I. I. Physical principles of gravimetric methods- Volume gravitational potential I 1. 2. Gravity field of the Earth 3 1. 3. Anomalies of gravitational acceleration-Gravity anomalies 9 1. 3. 1. Faye anomaly-Free-air anomaly 9 1. 3. 2. Bouguer anomalies 10 1. 3. 3. Isostatic anomaly 14 1. 3. 4. Geological significance of anomalies 17 1. 4. Rock densities 19 1. 4. 1. Natural rock densities 20 1. 4. 2. Rock density determination 22 1. 4. 3. Determination of density characteristics 25 25 1. 5. Gravity observations 26 1. 5. 1. Instruments for absolute gravity observations 1. 5. 2.