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Association Between Lignin And Carbohydrates In Wood And Other Plant Tissues

Author: Tetsuo Koshijima
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662051915
Size: 19.29 MB
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Throughout the world 10 million tons of wood are used every year for paper-making, cellulose preparations, tobacco filters, cloth and dietary supplements. Wood is mainly composed of polysaccharides and lignin which are hydrophilic and hydrophobic respectively. This book describes the academic approaches to native bonds between lignin and the carbohhydrates in wood and other plants. The roles of lignin-carbohydrates complexes are discussed for practical use and wood processing. The authors describe the close relationship between lignin-carbohydrate complexes and biobleaching of kraft pulp, and the residual lignin in kraft pulp and their contribution to benzylated wood foaming. In addition they introduce the artificial lignin-carbohydrate bond formation and an enzymic degradation of lignin-carbohydrate bonds.

Wood Modification

Author: Callum A. S. Hill
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 047002173X
Size: 36.56 MB
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This book is exclusively concerned with wood modification, although many of these processes are generic and can be applied to other lignocellulosic materials. There have been many rapid developments in wood modification over the past decade and, in particular, there has been considerable progress made in the commercialisation of technologies. Topics covered include: The use of timber in the 21st century Modifying the properties of wood Chemical modification of wood: Acetic Anhydride Modification and reaction with other chemicals Thermal modification of wood Surface modification Impregnation modification Commercialisation of wood modification Environmental consideration and future developments This is the first time that a book has covered all wood modification technologies in one text. Although the book covers the main research developments in wood modification, it also puts wood modification into context and additionally deals with aspects of commercialisation and environmental impact. This book is very timely, because wood modification is undergoing huge developments at the present time, driven in part by environmental concerns regarding the use of wood treated with certain preservatives. There has been considerable commercial interest shown in wood modification over the past decade, with products based upon thermal modification, and furfurylation now being actively being marketed. The next few years will see the commercialisation of acetylation and impregnation modification. This is a new industry, but one that has enormous potential. This book will prove useful to all those with an interest in wood modification including researchers, technologists and professionals working in wood science and timber engineering, wood preservation, and well as professionals in the paper and pulp industries, and those with an interest in the development of renewable materials.

Nondestructive Characterization And Imaging Of Wood

Author: Voichita Bucur
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662089866
Size: 48.48 MB
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This book on the Nondestructive Characterization and Imaging of Wood by Professor Voichita Bucur is truly the most outstanding reference on the subject ever written. Since the origins of mankind, wood has played a key role in the history of humans and other living creatures, ranging from provision of life from trees giving air, heat, light, and food to nourish their bodies to structures to protect them from the elements. Wood has also played a key role in one of the world's primary religions. Nondestructive diagnostics methods have long found application in medi cal practice for examination of the human body in order to detect life threatening abnormalities and permit diagnosis to extend life. Nondestructive testing has been used for many years to insure the safety of machinery, air craft, railroads, tunnels, buildings and many other structures. Therefore, it is timely for a treatise, like the present one, to be written describing how wood can be characterized without employing destructive test methods. Since wood is so valuable to mankind, it is important to know the latest methods to nondestructively characterize wood for all practical applications.

Edible Films And Coatings

Author: Maria Pilar Montero Garcia
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315356244
Size: 11.28 MB
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The search for better strategies to preserve foods with minimal changes during processing has been of great interest in recent decades. Traditionally, edible films and coatings have been used as a partial barrier to moisture, oxygen, and carbon dioxide through selective permeability to gases, as well as improving mechanical handling properties. The advances in this area have been breathtaking, and in fact their implementation in the industry is already a reality. Even so, there are still new developments in various fields and from various perspectives worth reporting. Edible Films and Coatings: Fundamentals and Applications discusses the newest generation of edible films and coatings that are being especially designed to allow the incorporation and/or controlled release of specific additives by means of nanoencapsulation, layer-by-layer assembly, and other promising technologies. Covering the latest novelties in research conducted in the field of edible packaging, it considers state-of-the-art innovations in coatings and films; novel applications, particularly in the design of gourmet foods; new advances in the incorporation of bioactive compounds; and potential applications in agronomy, an as yet little explored area, which could provide considerable advances in the preservation and quality of foods in the field.

Analytical Methods In Wood Chemistry Pulping And Papermaking

Author: Eero Sjöström
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662038986
Size: 18.35 MB
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In its broadest sense, and according to the traditional conception, wood chemistry is a comprehensive discipline, ranging from fundamental studies to practical applications. The manifold constituents, located in different morphological regions in the wood, results in an extreme complexity of wood chemistry. Ever more sophisticated endeavors needing fundamental studies and advanced analytical methods are necessary in order to delve deeper into various problems in pulping and papermaking. Gradually, new, improved ana lytical methods, originally developed for research purposes, are currently replacing many of the old "routine" methods in practical applications. Because of the expanse of the subject, an attempt to write a book of this size about analytical methods seems, perhaps, too ambitious. Of course, a whole book series of several volumes would be necessary to cover this topic completely. However, there is undoubtedly a need for a more condensed presentation which does not go into experimental details, but is limited to the basic principles of the analytical methods and illustrates their applica tions. The emphasis is on more advanced and potential methods, and partic ularly on those based on different types of spectroscopy and chromatography.

Characterization Of Lignocellulosic Materials

Author: Thomas Q. Hu
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN: 9781405158800
Size: 46.82 MB
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Lignocellulosic materials are a natural, abundant and renewable resource essential to the functioning of industrial societies and critical to the development of a sustainable global economy. As wood and paper products, they have played an important role in the evolution of civilization. Improvement of the quality and manufacturing efficiency of such products has often been hampered by the lack of understanding of the complex structures and chemical compositions of the materials. Due to increasing economic and environmental issues concerning the use of petrochemicals, lignocellulosic materials will be relied upon as feedstock for the production of chemicals, fuels and biocompatible materials. Significant progress has been made to use lignocellulosic materials for the production of fuel ethanol and as a reinforcing component in polymer composites. Effective and economical methods for such uses, however, remain underdeveloped, partly due to the difficulties encountered in the characterization of the structures of native lignocelluloses and lignocelluloses-based materials. Improved methods for the characterization of lignocellulosic materials are needed. Characterization of Lignocellulosic Materials covers recent advances in the characterization of wood, pulp fibres and papers. It also describes the analyses of native and modified lignocellulosic fibres and materials using a range of advanced techniques such as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, 2D heteronuclear single quantum correlation NMR, and Raman microscopy. The book provides a survey of state-of-the-art characterization methods for lignocellulosic materials, for both academic and industrial researchers who work in the fields of wood and paper, lignocelluloses-based composites and polymer blends, and bio-based fuels and materials.