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Athens Transformed 404 262 Bc

Author: Phillip Harding
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317435451
Size: 34.68 MB
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During the heady, democratic days of the fifth and fourth centuries, the poorer members of Athenian society, the lower two classes of zeugitai and thetes, enjoyed an unprecedented dominance in both domestic and foreign politics. At home, the participatory nature of the constitution required their presence not only in the lawcourts and assembly, but also in most of the minor magistracies; abroad, they were the driving force of the navy, which ensured Athens’ control of the Aegean and the Black seas. Their participation at all levels was made possible by state pay (for jury duty, attendance in the assembly, public office and military service). In the fifth century state pay was financed largely through the tribute paid by members of the empire, supplemented by the liturgical contributions of the rich and, beginning during the war, a property tax (the eisphora). In the fourth century, almost the whole burden was shouldered by taxation upon the wealthy, especially those who owned property. In this book, author Phillip Harding traces the major changes that occurred in the administration of the state that eventually deprived the lower classes of their supremacy and transferred power into the hands of the wealthy land-owners. Things changed radically after Athens’ defeat in the Lamian (or Hellenic) War in 322BC. Over the next several decades, restriction of the franchise, elimination of pay for some public offices, the loss of the navy, the increased dependence upon local grain from the larger estates in Attika, the removal of the tax burden from the rich by the ending of such major liturgies as the trierarchia and the choregia and the abandoning of the eisphora all contributed to this transformation.

The Extramercantile Economies Of Greek And Roman Cities

Author: David B. Hollander
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351004808
Size: 49.85 MB
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Recent work on the ancient economy has tended to concentrate on market exchange, but other forces also caused goods to change hands. Such nonmarket transfers ranged from small private gifts to the wholesale confiscation of cities, lands, and their peoples. The papers presented in this volume examine aspects of this extramercantile economy, particularly benefaction and the role of associations, as well as their impact on the market economy. This volume brings together ancient historians, New Testament scholars, and classicists to assess critically the New Institutional Economics framework. Combining theoretical approaches with detailed investigations of particular regions and topics, its chapters examine Greek economic thought, the benefits of membership in private associations, and the economic role of civic euergetism from classical Athens to the municipalities of Roman Spain. The Extramercantile Economies of Greek and Roman Cities will be of use to those interested in the economic context of ancient religions, the role of associations in the economy, theoretical approaches to the study of the ancient economy, labor and politics in the ancient city, as well as how Greek philosophers, from Xenophon to Philodemus, developed ethical ideas about economic behavior.

Material Turn Feministische Perspektiven Auf Materialit T Und Materialismus

Author: Imke Leicht
Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich
ISBN: 3847404067
Size: 46.69 MB
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Das Thema Materialität wird innerhalb feministischer Forschungen in den letzten Jahren erneut diskutiert. Vor dem Hintergrund des material turn widmet sich der Band aktuellen Auseinandersetzungen mit Materialität und Materialismus. Dabei sollen zum einen bestehende Konfliktfelder zwischen Diskurs und Materialität sowie Struktur, Handlungsfähigkeit und Subjektivität aus feministischer Perspektive aufgezeigt werden. Zum anderen strebt der Band an, Potenziale einer verbindenden Perspektive auf 'neue' und 'alte' Konzeptionen von Materialität und Materialismen innerhalb feministischer Theorien und Praxen kritisch auszuloten.

Hellas On Screen

Author: Irene Berti
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden gmbh
ISBN: 9783515092234
Size: 71.48 MB
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The recent success of Hollywood blockbusters such as Troy, Alexander and 300 demonstrates how popular Greek antiquity still is and how well it can be marketed. Today as in the golden age of the peplum-genre, its myths, the Homeric heroes, the Attic tragedies, and less frequently historical personages such as Alexander the Great or the Spartan king Leonidas represent Hellas. The authors of this volume highlight the many and varied forms of the reception of ancient Hellas in the history of the cinema, from mythology to Roman Greece, from the era of silent films to the new millennium. In this, they are examining classic films, recent releases, and lesser known and often overlooked productions.

Das Palmyrenische Teilreich

Author: Udo Hartmann
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag
ISBN: 9783515078009
Size: 45.52 MB
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This highly detailed and annotated thesis examines the political history of Palmrya with particular attention paid to the turmoil and unrest of the 3rd century AD, a century which saw crises across the Roman Empire. Chapters examine the problematic evidence, relations with Syria and Persia, cities and towns, coins, kings and rulers. German text.