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Statistical Physics

Author: Roberto Piazza
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319445375
Size: 16.92 MB
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This book, provides a general introduction to the ideas and methods of statistical mechanics with the principal aim of meeting the needs of Master’s students in chemical, mechanical, and materials science engineering. Extensive introductory information is presented on many general physics topics in which students in engineering are inadequately trained, ranging from the Hamiltonian formulation of classical mechanics to basic quantum mechanics, electromagnetic fields in matter, intermolecular forces, and transport phenomena. Since engineers should be able to apply physical concepts, the book also focuses on the practical applications of statistical physics to material science and to cutting-edge technologies, with brief but informative sections on, for example, interfacial properties, disperse systems, nucleation, magnetic materials, superfluidity, and ultralow temperature technologies. The book adopts a graded approach to learning, the opening four basic-level chapters being followed by advanced “starred” sections in which special topics are discussed. Its relatively informal style, including the use of musical metaphors to guide the reader through the text, will aid self-learning.

Complex Materials In Physics And Biology

Author: F. Mallamace
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 1614990719
Size: 34.75 MB
Format: PDF
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The surprising connections which have developed between physics and various fields as diverse as biology and economics now constitute the fascinating research area known as complex materials and systems. The study of complex materials and processes is rapidly expanding, and many important experimental and theoretical discoveries have been made in recent years. Statistical physics is key to exploring this new and expanding field, enabling an understanding of real-world phenomena compromised of complex materials or exhibiting complex processes. This book includes lectures presented at the CLXXVI International School of Physics “Enrico Fermi”, held in Varenna, Italy, in July 2010. The school focused on recent advances and developing perspectives in the study of complex materials and processes, as related to physics and biology. The book provides both an introduction and a complete presentation of recent theoretical and experimental developments for each topic. Topics addressed include: scaling and universality, supra-molecular systems and solutions, polymer systems, static and dynamics of liquid water, arrested dynamics and jamming, dynamics of out of equilibrium systems, physics of confined liquids, granular matter, physics of biological and medical systems, networks in physical and social sciences, turbulence in physics, biology and economics and finally, switching phenomena in biology and economics. The book provides reviews of these cutting edge topics by leading authorities and will be a reference work useful to both advanced research professionals and beginning graduate students.

Computer Simulations In Condensed Matter From Materials To Chemical Biology

Author: Mauro Ferrario
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 354035283X
Size: 49.87 MB
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This extensive and comprehensive collection of lectures by world-leading experts in the field introduces and reviews all relevant computer simulation methods and their applications in condensed matter systems. Volume 2 offers surveys on numerical experiments carried out for a great number of systems, ranging from materials sciences to chemical biology, including supercooled liquids, spin glasses, colloids, polymers, liquid crystals, biological membranes and folding proteins.

Hydrodynamic Fluctuations In Fluids And Fluid Mixtures

Author: Jose M. Ortiz de Zarate
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080459431
Size: 74.11 MB
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This book deals with density, temperature, velocity and concentration fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures. The book first reviews thermal fluctuations in equilibrium fluids on the basis of fluctuating hydrodynamics. It then shows how the method of fluctuating hydrodynamics can be extended to deal with hydrodynamic fluctuations when the system is in a stationary nonequilibrium state. In contrast to equilibrium fluids where the fluctuations are generally short ranged unless the system is close to a critical point, fluctuations in nonequilibrium fluids are always long-ranged encompassing the entire system. The book provides the first comprehensive treatment of fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures brought out of equilibrium by the imposition of a temperature and concentration gradient but that are still in a macroscopically quiescent state. By incorporating appropriate boundary conditions in the case of fluid layers, it is shown how fluctuating hydrodynamics affects the fluctuations close to the onset of convection. Experimental techniques of light scattering and shadowgraphy for measuring nonequilibrium fluctuations are elucidated and the experimental results thus far reported in the literature are reviewed. · Systematic exposition of fluctuating hydrodynamics and its applications · First book on nonequilibrium fluctuations in fluids · Fluctuating Boussinesq equations and nonequilibrium fluids · Fluid layers and onset of convection · Rayleigh scattering and Brillouin scattering in fluids · Shadowgraph technique for measuring fluctuations · Fluctuations near hydrodynamic instabilities

Handbook Of Crystal Growth

Author: Tatau Nishinaga
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444593764
Size: 68.97 MB
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Volume IA Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Thermodynamics and Kinetics) Volume IA addresses the present status of crystal growth science, and provides scientific tools for the following volumes: Volume II (Bulk Crystal Growth) and III (Thin Film Growth and Epitaxy). Volume IA highlights thermodynamics and kinetics. After historical introduction of the crystal growth, phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics, stoichiometry, and shape of crystal and structure of melt are described. Then, the most fundamental and basic aspects of crystal growth are presented, along with the theories of nucleation and growth kinetics. In addition, the simulations of crystal growth by Monte Carlo, ab initio-based approach and colloidal assembly are thoroughly investigated. Volume IB Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Transport and Stability) Volume IB discusses pattern formation, a typical problem in crystal growth. In addition, an introduction to morphological stability is given and the phase-field model is explained with comparison to experiments. The field of nanocrystal growth is rapidly expanding and here the growth from vapor is presented as an example. For the advancement of life science, the crystal growth of protein and other biological molecules is indispensable and biological crystallization in nature gives many hints for their crystal growth. Another subject discussed is pharmaceutical crystal growth. To understand the crystal growth, in situ observation is extremely powerful. The observation techniques are demonstrated. Volume IA Explores phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics of Si, stoichiometry of oxides and atomistic structure of melt and alloys Explains basic ideas to understand crystal growth, equilibrium shape of crystal, rough-smooth transition of step and surface, nucleation and growth mechanisms Focuses on simulation of crystal growth by classical Monte Carlo, ab-initio based quantum mechanical approach, kinetic Monte Carlo and phase field model. Controlled colloidal assembly is presented as an experimental model for crystal growth. Volume IIB Describes morphological stability theory and phase-field model and comparison to experiments of dendritic growth Presents nanocrystal growth in vapor as well as protein crystal growth and biological crystallization Interprets mass production of pharmaceutical crystals to be understood as ordinary crystal growth and explains crystallization of chiral molecules Demonstrates in situ observation of crystal growth in vapor, solution and melt on the ground and in space

Theory Of Liquids And Other Disordered Media

Author: Walter Schirmacher
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319069500
Size: 57.98 MB
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This set of lectures provides an introduction to the structure, thermodynamics and dynamics of liquids, binary solutions and polymers at a level that will enable graduate students and non-specialist researchers to understand more specialized literature and to possibly start their own work in this field. Part I starts with the introduction of distribution functions, which describe the statistical arrangements of atoms or molecules in a simple liquid. The main concepts involve mean field theories like the Perkus-Yevick theory and the random phase approximation, which relate the forces to the distribution functions. In order to provide a concise, self-contained text, an understanding of the general statistical mechanics of an interacting many-body system is assumed. The fact that in a classic liquid the static and dynamic aspects of such a system can be discussed separately forms the basis of the two-fold structure of this approach. In order to allow polymer melts and solutions to be discussed, a short chapter acquaints readers with scaling concepts by discussing random walks and fractals. Part II of the lecture series is essentially devoted to the presentation of the dynamics of simple and complex liquids in terms of the generalized hydrodynamics concept, such as that introduced by Mori and Zwanzig. A special topic is a comprehensive introduction of the liquid-glass transition and its discussion in terms of a mode-coupling theory.

The New Walford

Author: Albert John Walford
Publisher: New Walford's Guide to Referen
ISBN: 9781856044950
Size: 25.49 MB
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First published in 1959, Walford''s guide to reference material achieved international recognition as a leading bibliographic tool across all subject areas. But, in the 1990s, the web transformed the information universe; and so we have now transformed Walford. The New Walford (TNW) Volume 1: Science, Technology and Medicine is the first volume of a radically different guide. Published over 3 years, TNW will form the most substantial work of its kind in the English language. This book provides a pathway through the huge quantity of information now accessible via the web. The types of material cited have been greatly widened to reflect the revolution brought about by the use of networked information; but we have made sure that print resources are not ignored where these are still valuable. If you are approaching a subject for the first time, TNW will get you on your way, guiding you to the best starting points for your query. For the information professional, TNW''s new way of categorizing resources reflects the fundamental changes that have taken place in the scientific, business, political and social information landscapes. Who is it for This new reference book will be valuable for professionals worldwide who need to suggest resources to people who are relatively unfamiliar with the nuances of a topic and who need to know where to start. The focus is on resources that are most likely to be found and used within public, government, education or business information services. If you are an LIS professional responsible for developing and revising a reference collection, new to reference work, staffing an enquiry desk, a research worker or student, you''ll welcome publication of this new work - it''s your paper portal to the world of reference resources. Subject coverage mathematics physics & astronomy earth sciences chemistry biological sciences agriculture, forestry, fisheries & food pre-clinical sciences; clinical medicine health natural resources & energy engineering information & communication technology. Subject fields include astrophysics & cosmology biodiversity & conservation genetics, genomics & bioinformatics infectious diseases information system security meteorology & climatology microengineering & nanotechnology palaeontology soil science sports & exercise medicine. Editor-in-Chief Dr Ray Lester held posts in Unilever and a number of university libraries before becoming Director of Information Services at the London Business School and then the Head of Library and Information Services at The Natural History Museum. Subject specialists Catherine Carr, Cranfield University Jim Corlett, Nottingham Trent University Joanne Dunham, University of Leicester Helen Hathaway, University of Reading Dr Jonathan Jeffery, Leiden University Gareth Johnson, University of York Nazma Masud, Royal Society of Chemistry Roger Mills, University of Oxford Lorna Mitchell, Queen Mary, University of London Dr David Newton, The British Library Linda Norbury, University of Birmingham Bob Parry, University of Reading Alison Sutton, University of Reading Elizabeth Tilley, University of Cambridge Dr Barry White, University of Manchester Fenella Whittaker, The Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 010

Modeling And Simulation Of New Materials

Author: Pedro L. Garrido
Publisher: Amer Inst of Physics
ISBN: 9780735406247
Size: 74.85 MB
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This volume originated at the 10th Granada Seminar (a series of small topical conferences whose pedagogical effort is especially aimed at young researchers), held at the University of Granada, Spain, September 15-19, 2008, and contains the main lectures and a selection of contributed papers in that conference. This is the tenth of a series of Granada Lectures previously published by: World Scientific (Singapore 1993), Springer Verlag (Berlin 1995 and 1997) Lecture Notes in Physics volumes 448 and 493, Elsevier (Amsterdam 1999) Computer Physics Communications vols. 121 and 122, and the American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings Series, volumes 574, 661, 779 and 887. These books and the successive editions of the Seminar since 1990 are described in detail at http://ergodic.ugr.es/cp/. An effort has been made by authors and editors to offer pedagogical notes in the present book. In particular, each topic is comprehensively described and, eventually, some practical exercises are proposed. We try to mold the Granada Lectures into a series of books that help introduce the beginner to novel advances in statistical physics and to the creative use of computers in scientific research, as well as to serve as a work of reference for teachers, students and researchers.

Models For Polymeric And Anisotropic Liquids

Author: Martin Kröger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540262107
Size: 54.29 MB
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Models should be as simple as possible, but no simpler. For the physics of polymeric liquids, whose relevant lengths and time scales are out of reach for first principles calculations, this means that we have to choose a minimum set of sufficiently detailed descriptors such as architecture (linear, ring, branched), connectivity, semiflexibility, stretchability, excluded volume, and hydrodynamic interaction. These 'universal' fluids allow the prediction of material properties under external flow- or electrodynamic fields, the results being expressed in terms of reference units, specific for any particular chosen material. This book provides an introduction to the kinetic theory and computer simulation methods needed to handle these models and to interpret the results. Also included are a number of sample applications and computer codes.