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Blue Laws And Black Codes

Author: Peter Wallenstein
Publisher: University of Virginia Press
ISBN: 0813924871
Size: 53.20 MB
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Women were once excluded everywhere from the legal profession, but by the 1990s the Virginia Supreme Court had three women among its seven justices. This is just one example of how law in Virginia has been transformed over the past century, as it has across the South and throughout the nation. In Blue Laws and Black Codes, Peter Wallenstein shows that laws were often changed not through legislative action or constitutional amendment but by citizens taking cases to state and federal courtrooms. Due largely to court rulings, for example, stores in Virginia are no longer required by "blue laws" to close on Sundays. Particularly notable was the abolition of segregation laws, modified versions of southern states’ "black codes" dating back to the era of slavery and the first years after emancipation. Virginia’s long road to racial equality under the law included the efforts of black civil rights lawyers to end racial discrimination in the public schools, the 1960 Richmond sit-ins, a case against segregated courtrooms, and a court challenge to a law that could imprison or exile an interracial couple for their marriage. While emphasizing a single state, Blue Laws and Black Codes is framed in regional and national contexts. Regarding blue laws, Virginia resembled most American states. Regarding racial policy, Virginia was distinctly southern. Wallenstein shows how people pushed for changes in the laws under which they live, love, work, vote, study, and shop—in Virginia, the South, and the nation.

We Face The Dawn

Author: Margaret Edds
Publisher: University of Virginia Press
ISBN: 0813940451
Size: 39.80 MB
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The decisive victories in the fight for racial equality in America were not easily won, much less inevitable; they were achieved through carefully conceived strategy and the work of tireless individuals dedicated to this most urgent struggle. In We Face the Dawn, Margaret Edds tells the gripping story of how the South's most significant grassroots legal team challenged the barriers of racial segregation in mid-century America. Virginians Oliver Hill and Spottswood Robinson initiated and argued one of the five cases that combined into the landmark Brown v. Board of Education, but their influence extends far beyond that momentous ruling. They were part of a small brotherhood, headed by social-justice pioneer Thurgood Marshall and united largely through the Howard Law School, who conceived and executed the NAACP’s assault on racial segregation in education, transportation, housing, and voting. Hill and Robinson’s work served as a model for southern states and an essential underpinning for Brown. When the Virginia General Assembly retaliated with laws designed to disbar the two lawyers and discredit the NAACP, they defiantly carried the fight to the United States Supreme Court and won. At a time when numerous schools have resegregated and the prospects of many minority children appear bleak, Hill and Robinson’s remarkably effective campaign against various forms of racial segregation can inspire a new generation to embrace educational opportunity as the birthright of every American child.

Faith In Bikinis

Author: Anthony J. Stanonis
Publisher: University of Georgia Press
ISBN: 0820333840
Size: 22.75 MB
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"This is a study of six beach resort communities on the U.S. South's Atlantic and Gulf coasts: Galveston, Biloxi, Panama City, St. Augustine, Myrtle Beach, and Virginia Beach. As these cities became leisure destinations in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Anthony Stanonis argues, they were forced to balance the competing demands of modernizing consumer culture and Southern traditionalism. They also participated in an especially delicate dance regarding race--one involving everything from cultural anxieties around tanning to a practical desire to tamp down the sort of racial conflict that might discourage tourism. Stanonis suggests that these negotiations were not always successful. Residents of the beach towns who did not profit from tourism and resented catering to outsiders' values, for example, sometimes struck back through acts of violence. Stanonis traces the rise of the infrastructure of tourism, the tensions of preserving the environment, and the development of a profitable industry in a clear and objective fashion. More importantly, he explores the complexities of race, ethnicity, sexuality, and the tensions between a resort's illegal underground and its 'family entertainment.' The text contains a breadth of archival sources--including the author's own personal collection. The sources blend the perspectives of boosters and developers with those of residents and tourists. Stanonis skillfully weaves the stories of actual people throughout the historical narrative he constructs, which makes the manuscript both more enjoyable and more relevant"--

The Heath Anthology Of American Literature Volume C

Author: Paul Lauter
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 0547201664
Size: 29.71 MB
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Unrivaled diversity and ease of use have made THE HEATH ANTHOLOGY OF AMERICAN LITERATURE: VOLUME C: LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY , 6th Edition is a best-selling text since 1989, when the first edition was published. In presenting a more inclusive

Remembering The Battle Of The Crater

Author: Kevin M. Levin
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
ISBN: 0813140412
Size: 44.77 MB
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The battle of the Crater is known as one of the Civil War's bloodiest struggles -- a Union loss with combined casualties of 5,000, many of whom were members of the United States Colored Troops (USCT) under Union Brigadier General Edward Ferrero. The battle was a violent clash of forces as Confederate soldiers fought for the first time against African American soldiers. After the Union lost the battle, these black soldiers were captured and subject both to extensive abuse and the threat of being returned to slavery in the South. Yet, despite their heroism and sacrifice, these men are often overlooked in public memory of the war. In Remembering The Battle of the Crater: War is Murder, Kevin M. Levin addresses the shared recollection of a battle that epitomizes the way Americans have chosen to remember, or in many cases forget, the presence of the USCT. The volume analyzes how the racial component of the war's history was portrayed at various points during the 140 years following its conclusion, illuminating the social changes and challenges experienced by the nation as a whole. Remembering The Battle of the Crater gives the members of the USCT a newfound voice in history.

Criminal Justice

Author: Phyllis B. Gerstenfeld
Publisher: Salem PressInc
ISBN: 9781587652196
Size: 65.22 MB
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Contains 625 alphabetically arranged entries that examine various aspects of criminal justice in the U.S., covering criminals, codes and categories of law, law enforcement agencies, courts, corrections, the U.S. Constitution, and Supreme Court rulings. Includes a time line, personages and subject indexes, and other reference materials.