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Ceramic Cutting Tools

Author: E. Dow Whitney
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 0815516312
Size: 51.68 MB
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Interest in ceramics as a high speed cutting tool material is based primarily on favorable material properties. As a class of materials, ceramics possess high melting points, excellent hardness and good wear resistance. Unlike most metals, hardness levels in ceramics generally remain high at elevated temperatures which means that cutting tip integrity is relatively unaffected at high cutting speeds. Ceramics are also chemically inert against most workmetals.

Physical Vapor Deposition And Thermal Stability Of Hard Oxide Coatings

Author: Ludvig Landälv
Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press
ISBN: 9176850889
Size: 50.31 MB
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The state-of-the-art tools for machining metals are primarily based on a metal-ceramic composite (WC-Co) coated with different combinations of carbide, nitride, and oxide coatings. Combinations of these coating materials are optimized to withstand specific wear conditions. Oxide coatings, mainly α-Al2O3, are especially desired because of their high hot-hardness, chemical inertness with respect to the workpiece, and their low friction. The search for possible alloy elements, which may facilitate the deposition of such oxides by means of physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques, has been the goal of this thesis. The sought alloy should form thermodynamically stable or metastable compounds, compatible with the temperature of use in metal cutting application. This thesis deals with process development and coating characterization of such new oxide alloy thin films, focusing on the Al-V-O, Al-Cr-Si-O, and Cr-Zr-O systems. Alloying aluminum oxide with iso-valent vanadium is a candidate for forming the desired alloys. Therefore, coatings of (Al1-xVx)2O3, with x ranging from 0 to 1, were deposited with reactive sputter deposition. X-ray diffraction showed three different crystal structures depending on V-metal fraction in the coating: α-V2O3 rhombohedral structure for 100 at.% V, a defect spinel structure for the intermediate region, (63 - 42 at.% V), and a gamma-alumina-like solid solution at lower V-content, (18 and 7 at.%), were observed, the later was shifted to larger d-spacing compared to the pure γ-Al2O3 sample obtained if deposited with only Al-target. Annealing the Al-rich coatings in air resulted in formation of V2O5 crystals on the surface of the coating after annealing to 500 °C for 42 at.% V and 700 °C for 18 at.% V metal fraction respectively. The highest thermal stability was shown for pure γ-Al2O3-coating which transformed to α-Al2O3 after annealing to 1100° C. Highest hardness was observed for the Al-rich oxides, ~24 GPa. The hardness then decreases with increasing V-content, larger than 7 at.% V metal fraction. Doping the Al2O3 coating with 7 at.% V resulted in a significant surface smoothening compared to the binary oxide. The measured hardness after annealing in air decreased in conjunction with the onset of further oxidation of the coatings. This work increases the understanding of this complicated material system with respect to possible phases formed with pulsed DC magnetron sputtering deposition as well as their response to annealing in air. The inherent difficulties of depositing insulating oxide films with PVD, requiring a closed electrical circuit, makes the investigation of process stability an important part of this research. In this context, I investigated the influence of adding small amount of Si in Al-Cr cathode on the coating properties in a pulsed DC industrial cathodic arc system and the plasma characteristics, process parameters, and coating properties in a lab DC cathodic arc system. Si was chosen here due to a previous study showing improved erosion behavior of Al-Cr-Si over pure Al-Cr cathode without Si incorporation in the coating. The effect of Si in the Al-Cr cathode in the industrial cathodic arc system showed slight improvements on the cathode erosion but Si was found in all coatings where Si was added in the cathode. The Si addition promoted the formation of the B1-like metastable cubic oxide phase and the incorporation led to reduced or equal hardness values compared to the corresponding Si-free processes. The DC-arc plasma study on the same material system showed only small improvements in the cathode erosion and process stability (lower pressure and cathode voltage) when introducing 5 at.% Si in the Al70Cr30-cathode. The presence of volatile SiO species could be confirmed through plasma analysis, but the loss of Si through these species was negligible, since the coating composition matched the cathode composition also under these conditions. The positive effect of added Si on the process stability at the cathode surface, should be weighed against Si incorporation in the coating. This incorporation seems to lead to a reduction in mechanical properties in the as-deposited coatings and promote the formation of a B1-like cubic metastable oxide structure for the (Al,Cr)2O3 oxide. This formation may or may not be beneficial for the final application since literature indicates a slight stabilization of the metastable phase upon Si-incorporation, contrary to the effect of Cr, which stabilizes the α-phase. The thermal stability of alloys for metal cutting application is crucial for their use. Previous studies on another alloy system, Cr-Zr-O, had shown solid solution, for Cr-rich compositions in that material system, in the sought corundum structure. The thermal stability of α-Cr0.28Zr0.10O0.61 coating deposited by reactive radio frequency (RF)-magnetron sputtering at 500 °C was therefore investigated here after annealing in vacuum up to 870 °C. The annealed samples showed transformation of α-(Cr,Zr)2O3 and amorphous ZrOx-rich areas into tetragonal ZrO2 and bcc-Cr. The instability of the α-(Cr,Zr)2O3 is surprising and possibly related to the annealing being done under vacuum, facilitating the loss of oxygen. Further in situ synchrotron XRD annealing studies on the α-Cr0.28Zr0.10O0.61 coating in air and in vacuum showed increased stability for the air annealed sample up to at least 975 °C, accompanied with a slight increase in ex-situ measured nanohardness. The onset temperature for formation of tetragonal ZrO2 was similar to that for isothermally vacuum annealing. The synchrotron-vacuum annealed coating again decomposed into bcc-Cr and t-ZrO2, with an addition of monoclinic–ZrO2 due to grain growth. The stabilization of the room temperature metastable tetragonal ZrO2 phase, due to surface energy effects present with small grains sizes, may prove to be useful for metal cutting applications. The observed phase segregation of α-(Cr,Zr)2O3 and formation of tetragonal ZrO2 with corresponding increase in hardness for this pseudobinary oxide system also opens up design routes for pseudobinary oxides with tunable microstructural and mechanical properties.

Encyclopedia Of Sustainable Technologies

Author: Martin Abraham
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128047925
Size: 41.19 MB
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Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technologies provides an authoritative assessment of the sustainable technologies that are currently available or in development. Sustainable technology includes the scientific understanding, development and application of a wide range of technologies and processes and their environmental implications. Systems and lifecycle analyses of energy systems, environmental management, agriculture, manufacturing and digital technologies provide a comprehensive method for understanding the full sustainability of processes. In addition, the development of clean processes through green chemistry and engineering techniques are also described. The book is the first multi-volume reference work to employ both Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and Triple Bottom Line (TBL) approaches to assessing the wide range of technologies available and their impact upon the world. Both approaches are long established and widely recognized, playing a key role in the organizing principles of this valuable work. Provides readers with a one-stop guide to the most current research in the field Presents a grounding of the fundamentals of the field of sustainable technologies Written by international leaders in the field, offering comprehensive coverage of the field and a consistent, high-quality scientific standard Includes the Life Cycle Analysis and Triple Bottom Line approaches to help users understand and assess sustainable technologies

Get A Job

Author: Ron Fry
Publisher: Open Road Media
ISBN: 1504055675
Size: 14.12 MB
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Three essential aides to help you land the job of your dreams in today’s competitive market. Ron Fry, the founder and president of Career Press for over three decades, is a sought after speaker, seminar leader, and expert authority on how best to prepare for the job interview process. From standout résumés to key questions and highly effective responses, Fry will show you how to get that job. 101 Great Answers to the Toughest Interview Questions: Thoroughly updated for today’s job market, this brand-new twenty-fifth anniversary edition will help you successfully prep for any interview—no matter how tough—with answers that will convince employers you are the best candidate for the position. 101 Smart Questions to Ask on Your Interview: The interview is not over when you hear: “Do you have any questions for me?” Ron Fry shows you how to take charge of the interview process and sell the company on you while obtaining the information you need to make sure you are sold on them. 101 Great Résumés: Find the résumé format that will showcase your unique background, situation, skill sets, and career goals—and ensure you land your dream job.

High Performance Grinding And Advanced Cutting Tools

Author: Mark J. Jackson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461431166
Size: 39.34 MB
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High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.