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Democracies And Dictatorships In Latin America

Author: Scott Mainwaring
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107433630
Size: 21.74 MB
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This book presents a new theory for why political regimes emerge, and why they subsequently survive or break down. It then analyzes the emergence, survival and fall of democracies and dictatorships in Latin America since 1900. Scott Mainwaring and Aníbal Pérez-Liñán argue for a theoretical approach situated between long-term structural and cultural explanations and short-term explanations that look at the decisions of specific leaders. They focus on the political preferences of powerful actors - the degree to which they embrace democracy as an intrinsically desirable end and their policy radicalism - to explain regime outcomes. They also demonstrate that transnational forces and influences are crucial to understand regional waves of democratization. Based on extensive research into the political histories of all twenty Latin American countries, this book offers the first extended analysis of regime emergence, survival and failure for all of Latin America over a long period of time.

Authoritarian Regimes In Latin America

Author: Paul H. Lewis
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780742537392
Size: 70.54 MB
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This thoughtful text describes how Latin America's authoritarian culture has been and continues to be reflected in a variety of governments, from the near-anarchy of the early regional bosses (caudillos), to all-powerful personalistic dictators or oligarchic machines, to contemporary mass-movement regimes like Castro's Cuba or Peron's Argentina. Taking a student-friendly chronological approach, Paul Lewis also analyzes how the internal dynamics of each historical phase of the region's development led to the next. He describes how dominant ideologies of the period were used to shape, and justify, each regime's power structure. Balanced yet cautious about the future of democracy in the region, this accessible book will be invaluable for courses on contemporary Latin America.

Party Systems In Latin America

Author: Scott Mainwaring
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316811883
Size: 20.69 MB
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Based on contributions from leading scholars, this study generates a wealth of new empirical information about Latin American party systems. It also contributes richly to major theoretical and comparative debates about the effects of party systems on democratic politics, and about why some party systems are much more stable and predictable than others. Party Systems in Latin America builds on, challenges, and updates Mainwaring and Timothy Scully's seminal Building Democratic Institutions: Party Systems in Latin America (1995), which re-oriented the study of democratic party systems in the developing world. It is essential reading for scholars and students of comparative party systems, democracy, and Latin American politics. It shows that a stable and predictable party system facilitates important democratic processes and outcomes, but that building and maintaining such a party system has been the exception rather than the norm in contemporary Latin America.

Life After Dictatorship

Author: James Loxton
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108556515
Size: 66.10 MB
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Life after Dictatorship launches a new research agenda on authoritarian successor parties worldwide. Authoritarian successor parties are parties that emerge from authoritarian regimes, but that operate after a transition to democracy. They are one of the most common but overlooked features of the global democratic landscape. They are major actors in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America, and they have been voted back into office in over one-half of all third-wave democracies. This book presents a new set of terms, definitions, and research questions designed to travel across regions, and presents new data on these parties' prevalence and frequent return to power. With chapters from leading Africanists, Asianists, Europeanists, and Latin Americanists, it asks: why are authoritarian successor parties so common? Why are some more successful than others? And in what ways can they harm - or help - democracy?

Sex And The State

Author: Mala Htun
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521008792
Size: 38.82 MB
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As Argentina, Brazil, and Chile made transitions from democratic to authoritarian forms of government (and back), they confronted challenges posed by the rise of the feminist movement, social changes, and the power of the Catholic Church. This study explores the patterns of gender-related policy reform in these countries and reveals their implications for the peoples of Latin America. In addition, it offers a broader understanding of the logic behind the state's role in affecting private lives and gender relations everywhere.

Reflections On Uneven Democracies

Author: Daniel Brinks
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421414600
Size: 41.10 MB
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The third wave of democratization produced a wealth of enduring social science. Beginning in the 1970s, it prompted scholars to develop important theories on authoritarian breakdowns and transitions to democracy. No one in the field was more influential than Guillermo O’Donnell (1936–2011), whose pathbreaking work shaped the scholarship of generations of social scientists. Reflections on Uneven Democracies honors the legacy of O’Donnell’s research by advancing debates related to his work on democracy. Drawing together a veritable Who’s Who of eminent scholars—including two of O’Donnell’s closest collaborators, Philippe Schmitter and Laurence Whitehead—the volume examines issues related to democratic breakdowns and stability, the nature and quality of new democracies, institutional strength, the rule of law, and delegative democracy. This reexamination of some of the most influential arguments about democracy of the past forty years leads to original approaches and insights for a new era of democracy studies. Students of democracy and institutional performance, both Latin Americanists and comparativists more generally, will find this essential reading.

Dilemmas Of Democracy And Dictatorship

Author: Michael Radu
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 9781412821711
Size: 23.31 MB
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The phenomenon of globalization applies to political violence as well as to more benign aspects of life. Most people in the West, as well as the Third World, politicians and media included, are still missing this point. As a result, they are failing to adapt to the new realities--unlike their enemies. Dilemmas of Democracy and Dictatorship is a collection of essays Radu has published over the past decade. Some are opinion pieces; others are academic articles. The topics include political violence and terrorism in general, and in specific areas--Latin America, the Balkans, Turkey, Sub-Saharan Africa, Western and Eastern Europe. Radu discusses the causes and methods of contemporary terrorism, the process of state decay in some African countries, and mentalities and absurdities in Latin and Balkan politics. He also points out Western European illusions, delusions, and attitudes, and reviews American policy and confusion in dealing with the Third World. At times the analysis is political, other times military, and often it is sociological or psychological. In the author's words he is "always politically incorrect." The approach is multidisciplinary. What ties these disparate essays together is Radu's personal experience--both as a field researcher and in a few cases as a participant in ongoing events, and his personal idiosyncrasies, opinions, and perception of areas visited. These essays clearly demonstrate that in the face of globalization the world is not a village but a conglomerate of differences. This volume will be of particular interest to students of political violence, insurgency/guerrilla warfare, and Third World politics, journalists, and policymakers. Michael S. Radu is senior fellow and co-chairman of the Center on Terrorism at the Foreign Policy Research Institute in Philadelphia. Educated in communist Romania and at Columbia University, he has taught in the United States and South Africa. He has traveled to over forty countries doing research on local politics and political violence and has served as electoral observer in four countries, including as a UN observer in Cambodia. He is the author or editor of ten books.

Democracy And The Market

Author: Adam Przeworski
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521423359
Size: 48.43 MB
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The quest for freedom from hunger and repression has triggered in recent years a worldwide movement toward political democracy and economic rationality. Never have so many people experimented with democratic institutions. At the same time, traditional strategies of economic development have collapsed in Eastern Europe and Latin America and entire economic systems are being transformed on both continents. What should we expect in the countries that venture on the paths to democracy and markets? Will these transitions result in democracies or in new dictatorships? What economic system, new or old, will emerge? This major book analyzes recent events in Eastern Europe and Latin America, focusing on transitions to democracy and market-oriented economic reforms. The author underscores the interdependence of political and economic transformations and draws on extensive local data as part of his analysis. A distinctive feature of the book is that it employs models derived from politics, economics, and game theory. This book will be of particular interest to scholars and graduate students in political science and sociology.

Democracy And Dictatorship In Europe

Author: Sheri Berman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199373213
Size: 44.76 MB
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At the end of the twentieth century, many believed the story of European political development had come to an end. Modern democracy began in Europe, but for hundreds of years it competed with various forms of dictatorship. Now, though, the entire continent was in the democratic camp for the first time in history. But within a decade, this story had already begun to unravel. Some of the continent's newer democracies slid back towards dictatorship, while citizens in many of its older democracies began questioning democracy's functioning and even its legitimacy. And of course it is not merely in Europe where democracy is under siege. Across the globe the immense optimism accompanying the post-Cold War democratic wave has been replaced by pessimism. Many new democracies in Latin America, Africa, and Asia began "backsliding," while the Arab Spring quickly turned into the Arab winter. The victory of Donald Trump led many to wonder if it represented a threat to the future of liberal democracy in the United States. Indeed, it is increasingly common today for leaders, intellectuals, commentators and others to claim that rather than democracy, some form dictatorship or illiberal democracy is the wave of the future. In Democracy and Dictatorship in Europe, Sheri Berman traces the long history of democracy in its cradle, Europe. She explains that in fact, just about every democratic wave in Europe initially failed, either collapsing in upon itself or succumbing to the forces of reaction. Yet even when democratic waves failed, there were always some achievements that lasted. Even the most virulently reactionary regimes could not suppress every element of democratic progress. Panoramic in scope, Berman takes readers through two centuries of turmoil: revolution, fascism, civil war, and - -finally -- the emergence of liberal democratic Europe in the postwar era. A magisterial retelling of modern European political history, Democracy and Dictatorship in Europe not explains how democracy actually develops, but how we should interpret the current wave of illiberalism sweeping Europe and the rest of the world.