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Designing Tall Buildings

Author: Mark Sarkisian
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317501586
Size: 24.87 MB
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This second edition of Designing Tall Buildings, an accessible reference to guide you through the fundamental principles of designing high-rises, features two new chapters, additional sections, 400 images, project examples, and updated US and international codes. Each chapter focuses on a theme central to tall-building design, giving a comprehensive overview of the related architecture and structural engineering concepts. Author Mark Sarkisian, PE, SE, LEED® AP BD+C, provides clear definitions of technical terms and introduces important equations, gradually developing your knowledge. Projects drawn from SOM’s vast portfolio of built high-rises, many of which Sarkisian engineered, demonstrate these concepts. This book advises you to consider the influence of a particular site's geology, wind conditions, and seismicity. Using this contextual knowledge and analysis, you can determine what types of structural solutions are best suited for a tower on that site. You can then conceptualize and devise efficient structural systems that are not only safe, but also constructible and economical. Sarkisian also addresses the influence of nature in design, urging you to integrate structure and architecture for buildings of superior performance, sustainability, and aesthetic excellence.

Tall Buildings

Author: Mehmet Halis Günel
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317690729
Size: 16.92 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The structural challenges of building 800 metres into the sky are substantial, and include several factors which do not affect low-rise construction. This book focusses on these areas specifically to provide the architectural and structural knowledge which must be taken into account in order to design tall buildings successfully. In presenting examples of steel, reinforced concrete, and composite structural systems for such buildings, it is shown that wind load has a very important effect on the architectural and structural design. The aerodynamic approach to tall buildings is considered in this context, as is earthquake induced lateral loading. Case studies of some of the world’s most iconic buildings, illustrated with full colour photographs, structural plans and axonometrics, will bring to life the design challenges which they presented to architects and structural engineers. The Empire State Building, the Burj Khalifa, Taipei 101 and the HSB Turning Torso are just a few examples of the buildings whose real-life specifications are used to explain and illustrate core design principles, and their subsequent effect on the finished structure.

Structural Analysis And Design Of Tall Buildings

Author: Bungale S. Taranath
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439850909
Size: 38.61 MB
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As software skills rise to the forefront of design concerns, the art of structural conceptualization is often minimized. Structural engineering, however, requires the marriage of artistic and intuitive designs with mathematical accuracy and detail. Computer analysis works to solidify and extend the creative idea or concept that might have started out as a sketch on the back of an envelope. From Sketches on the Back of an Envelope to Elegant, Economical Buildings—The Art of Structural Conceptualization Bridging the gap between the conceptual approach and computer analysis, Structural Analysis and Design of Tall Buildings: Steel and Composite Construction integrates the design aspects of steel and composite buildings in one volume. Using conceptual thinking and basic strength of material concepts as foundations, the book shows engineers how to use imperfect information to estimate the answer to larger and more complex design problems by breaking them down into more manageable pieces. Written by an accomplished structural engineer, this book discusses the behavior and design of lateral load-resisting systems; the gravity design of steel and composite floors and columns; and methods for determining wind loads. It also examines the behavior and design of buildings subject to inelastic cyclic deformation during large earthquakes—with an emphasis on visual and descriptive analysis—as well as the anatomy of seismic provisions and the rehabilitation of seismically vulnerable steel buildings. Intuitive Techniques for Construction and Design The book covers a range of special topics, including performance-based design and human tolerance for the wind-induced dynamic motions of tall buildings. It also presents preliminary analysis techniques, graphical approaches for determining wind and seismic loads, and graphical aids for estimating unit-quantity of structural steel. The final chapter deals with the art of connection design. Forty case studies—from New York’s Empire State Building to Kuala Lumpur’s Petronas Towers—highlight the aspects of conceptualization that are key in the design of tall and ultra-tall buildings. A comprehensive design reference, this book guides engineers to visualize, conceptualize, and realize structural systems for tall buildings that are elegant and economical.

The Sustainable Tall Building

Author: Philip Oldfield
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317443683
Size: 38.32 MB
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The Sustainable Tall Building: A Design Primer is an accessible and highly illustrated guide, which primes those involved in the design and research of tall buildings to dramatically improve their performance. Using a mixture of original research and analysis, best-practice design thinking and a detailed look at exemplar case studies, author Philip Oldfield takes the reader through the architectural ideas, engineering strategies and cutting-edge technologies that are available to the tall building design team. The book takes a global perspective, examining high-rise design in different climates, cultures and contexts. It considers common functions such as high-rise housing and offices, to more radical designs such as vertical farming and vertical cemeteries. Innovation is provided by examining not only the environmental performance of tall buildings but also their social sustainability, guiding the reader through strategies to create successful communities at height. The book starts by critically appraising the sustainability of tall building architecture past and present, before demonstrating innovative ways for future tall buildings to be designed. These include themes such as climatically responsive architecture, siting a tall building in the city, zero-carbon towers, skygardens and community spaces at height, sustainable structural systems and novel façades. In doing so, the book provides essential reading for architects, engineers, consultants, developers, researchers and students engaged with sustainable design and high-rise architecture.

Tall Building Structures

Author: Bryan Stafford Smith
Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
ISBN:
Size: 60.48 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Examines structural aspects of high rise buildings, particularly fundamental approaches to the analysis of the behavior of different forms of building structures including frame, shear wall, tubular, core and outrigger-braced systems. Introductory chapters discuss the forces to which the structure is subjected, design criteria which are of the greatest relevance to tall buildings, and various structural forms which have developed over the years since the first skyscrapers were built at the turn of the century. A major chapter is devoted to the modeling of real structures for both preliminary and final analyses. Considerable attention is devoted to the assessment of the stability of the structure, and the significance of creep and shrinkage is discussed. A final chapter is devoted to the dynamic response of structures subjected to wind and earthquake forces. Includes both accurate computer-based and approximate methods of analysis.

Skyscrapers

Author: Matthew Wells
Publisher: Laurence King Publishing
ISBN: 1856694038
Size: 63.61 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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An investigation of thirty skyscrapers from around the world--both recently built and under construction--that explains the structural principles behind their creation

Reinforced Concrete Design Of Tall Buildings

Author: Bungale S. Taranath
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439804810
Size: 39.56 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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An exploration of the world of concrete as it applies to the construction of buildings, Reinforced Concrete Design of Tall Buildings provides a practical perspective on all aspects of reinforced concrete used in the design of structures, with particular focus on tall and ultra-tall buildings. Written by Dr. Bungale S. Taranath, this work explains the fundamental principles and state-of-the-art technologies required to build vertical structures as sound as they are eloquent. Dozens of cases studies of tall buildings throughout the world, many designed by Dr. Taranath, provide in-depth insight on why and how specific structural system choices are made. The book bridges the gap between two approaches: one based on intuitive skills and experience and the other based on computer skills and analytical techniques. Examining the results when experiential intuition marries unfathomable precision, this book discusses: The latest building codes, including ASCE/SEI 7-05, IBC-06/09, ACI 318-05/08, and ASCE/SEI 41-06 Recent developments in studies of seismic vulnerability and retrofit design Earthquake hazard mitigation technology, including seismic base isolation, passive energy dissipation, and damping systems Lateral bracing concepts and gravity-resisting systems Performance based design trends Dynamic response spectrum and equivalent lateral load procedures Using realistic examples throughout, Dr. Taranath shows how to create sound, cost-efficient high rise structures. His lucid and thorough explanations provide the tools required to derive systems that gracefully resist the battering forces of nature while addressing the specific needs of building owners, developers, and architects. The book is packed with broad-ranging material from fundamental principles to the state-of-the-art technologies and includes techniques thoroughly developed to be highly adaptable. Offering complete guidance, instructive examples, and color illustrations, the author develops several approaches for designing tall buildings. He demonstrates the benefits of blending imaginative problem solving and rational analysis for creating better structural systems.

Design And Analysis Of Tall And Complex Structures

Author: Feng Fu
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0081011210
Size: 28.27 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The design of tall buildings and complex structures involves challenging activities, including: scheme design, modelling, structural analysis and detailed design. This book provides structural designers with a systematic approach to anticipate and solve issues for tall buildings and complex structures. This book begins with a clear and rigorous exposition of theories behind designing tall buildings. After this is an explanation of basic issues encountered in the design process. This is followed by chapters concerning the design and analysis of tall building with different lateral stability systems, such as MRF, shear wall, core, outrigger, bracing, tube system, diagrid system and mega frame. The final three chapters explain the design principles and analysis methods for complex and special structures. With this book, researchers and designers will find a valuable reference on topics such as tall building systems, structure with complex geometry, Tensegrity structures, membrane structures and offshore structures. Numerous worked-through examples of existing prestigious projects around the world (such as Jeddah Tower, Shanghai Tower, and Petronas Tower etc.) are provided to assist the reader’s understanding of the topics. • Provides the latest modelling methods in design such as BIM and Parametric Modelling technique. • Detailed explanations of widely used programs in current design practice, such as SAP2000, ETABS, ANSYS, and Rhino. • Modelling case studies for all types of tall buildings and complex structures, such as: Buttressed Core system, diagrid system, Tube system, Tensile structures and offshore structures etc.

Tall Building Structural Design Of Concrete Building Up To 300 M Tall Mpa Fib Group 2014

Author: mpa The Concrete Centre & Federation Internationale du Beton (fib)
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
Size: 41.29 MB
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Tall buildings present unique challenges in terms of both design and construction. Their sheer scale demands that particular attention is paid simultaneously to strategic and detailed issues. Tall building design and construction requires an integrated approach, with the need for various engineering disciplines to coexist efficiently from the beginning of the project. This multi-disciplinary approach extends to consideration of how the building will be constructed, and thus ideally involves an integrated team (including construction and design professionals) at the earliest stage of the project. The definition of ‘tall’ for a building is not absolute. It is understood here as when the geometry of the building, for example overall height or height-to-minimum-plan dimension, significantly influences aspects of the design. These aspects are: „„ structural lateral strength and stiffness „„ vertical transportation „„ fire escape „„ services distribution „„ vertical building movement (shortening) „„ setting-out and verticality „„ hoisting of materials. One definition is that if the building aspect ratio, height divided by lowest overall lateral dimension, is more than 5:1, then the building may be considered tall. For consistency, this document will refer to tall buildings in preference to other common terms including ‘skyscraper’, ‘high-rise’ or ‘tower’, with the exception of sections describing historical context. The term ‘tall’ may also be sub-divided as follows: Use (approx. storey height) Tall Super-tall Residential (3.0 m) Up to 100 storeys (300 m) Over 100 storeys (300 m) Office (4.0 m) Up to 75 storeys (300 m) Over 75 storeys (300 m) The following chapters provide guidance and insight into the design challenges and considerations relating to the design of ‘Tall’ buildings formed in concrete. Some guidance is provided for buildings in the ‘Super-tall’ range; however, it is recommended that readers interested in ‘Super-tall’ buildings research this subject further using the references provided throughout this document. Historic precedents The word ‘skyscraper’ originated as a naval reference to the tallest mast or main sail of a sailing ship. Tall buildings were in evidence around the globe long before the term was first applied in the late 19th century. Table 1.1 Definition of ‘Tall’[1] The highest of the Pyramids of Giza, built circa 2500 BC using rudimentary technology and manpower alone, still stands at 146.6 m and was not surpassed until the 14th century, with the construction of Lincoln Cathedral in England. The earliest known examples of urban living based on vertical or tall construction are the many (around 500) ‘tower houses’ built in the 16th century to protect the inhabitants of Shibam in Yemen from Bedouin invaders. Often called ‘the oldest skyscraper city in the world’, the mud towers range from five to 16 storeys, reaching heights of up to 40 m and accommodating one or two families on each floor. Examples are profuse across Europe, from masonry towers in Bologna dating from the 11th century onwards and reaching heights of 97 m, to the 11-storey, stone-built structures of Edinburgh constructed upwards in the late 17th century in response to the confines of the defensive stone walls of the Scottish city’s boundary. Post-Industrial Revolution advances in building technology saw the construction over 1884-1885 of the 10-storey Home Insurance Building in Chicago, generally considered to be the first modern skyscraper. Its design pioneered the first load-bearing structural frame, a construction type later known as the ‘Chicago Skeleton’. This revolutionary concept, whereby individual framing elements, rather than walls, carry the entire building load, is regarded as the antecedent to our current ability to conceive and construct buildings truly warranting the term ‘tall’ or ‘skyscraper’. Earlier in the century, Joseph Monier had invented reinforced concrete, using metals – originally iron but latterly steel – cast into fresh concrete. In 1867 it was patented and exhibited at the Paris Exposition. The devastating ‘Great Chicago Fire’ of 1871, meanwhile, not only prompted a rewriting of statutory fire regulations but revealed strong evidence of the inherent fire resistance of concrete as a structural material in tall buildings. By the early 20th century, the skyscraper was becoming the most prominent and progressive building type, aided by innovations such as mechanical lifts, the telephone and central heating systems. Urbanisation and increasing wealth had further boosted prospects for the proliferation of tall buildings. The Ingalls Building (1903) in Cincinnati, Ohio, with its 15-storey monolithic frame, standing at 64 m tall, was the first reinforced concrete skyscraper. Today, concrete is firmly established as one of the leading tall building construction materials. Enhanced construction techniques, dramatic increases in concrete and embedded steel strengths, and recognition of inherent properties such as natural damping, fire resistance and sound insulation have all contributed to longevity in its use. Indeed, today the tallest buildings are built almost exclusively with reinforced concrete. Tall building design involves all of the design interfaces present in low-rise construction but there are also a number of key additional factors which designers must consider. This is particularly relevant for structural engineers but equally so for clients, architects and building services engineers. In addition, the design development is likely to involve input and collaboration from other specialists, including: „„ Façade engineers „„ Wind specialists „„ Geotechnical specialists „„ Seismic specialists „„ Fire consultants „„ Lift specialists „„ Construction advisors. For a design to be effective and economic, it is essential that all disciplines work holistically and gain a good understanding of the critical factors which have an impact on the associated disciplines. The following sections give an overview of the various elements structural engineers need to be aware of when embarking on the design of tall buildings. Further detail is provided in subsequent chapters. The reader will however need to research the various topics in more detail using the references provided throughout this document. Choice of structural system is fundamental to planning buildings and must be considered at the outset. One of the main factors in the design of tall buildings, and the key difference from the design of low-rise buildings, is the influence of lateral loading. For low-rise construction, measures to resist lateral loading are well understood by most designers and include well-positioned stiff vertical elements working in conjunction with horizontal diaphragms or braced panels. Such provisions, in conjunction with the provision of vertical and lateral ties for robustness, produce safe solutions which have stood the test of time. For tall buildings, the relative magnitude of lateral loadings to gravity loads generally increases significantly, just by virtue of building height. Wind loadings tend to increase with height from the ground which, combined with the large face area of a tall building and lever arm to the ground, serves to produce the dominant load case and hence govern the design and sizing of many of the main structural elements, particularly core walls and columns. Additionally, in tall buildings, lateral displacement or drift must also be calculated and may need to be limited. Excessive lateral displacement could potentially affect finish, internal partitions and external cladding, particularly if the inter-storey drift (lateral displacement over one storey) is too high. 4 2 Structural design strategies The dynamic performance of tall buildings must be considered in detail. Loading from wind and seismic actions occurs across a broad spectrum of frequencies and the response of the building will be influenced by its natural frequency and the degree of inherent damping. Where the natural frequencies of the building are close to the frequencies of applied loadings there is a risk that the response is amplified, resulting in increased loadings and movement. This mechanism requires detailed consideration by the structural engineer to investigate the performance of the structure across the full frequency spectrum of the applied loadings. If accelerations associated with any movement are excessive, building users could potentially experience motion sickness. In regions of the world subject to earthquakes, the response and performance of buildings during such events is also a critical design consideration. 2.1 The slenderness ratio At the initial planning stage, it is advisable to consider the basic proportions of the structure. The slenderness ratio (SR) can give a good initial indication of how hard the structural system will need to work. The SR is obtained by dividing total building height by the smaller base width. SRs of around H/6 or less can usually be accommodated whereas for H/8 or above the structural system will be working harder and the dynamic behaviour is likely to be dominant in the structural solution. The SR should, however, only be used as a guide to the potential behaviour of tall buildings. The following sections discuss the stability of tall buildings in more detail, and present a number of stability systems which can be used. As will be shown, the actual behaviour of the tall building is more closely related to the ratio of building height to the smaller dimension of the stability system.