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Earthquakes And Their Impact On Society

Author: Sebastiano D'Amico
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319217534
Size: 23.31 MB
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This book provides an integrated approach to the assessment of seismic hazards. The reduction of losses expected by future earthquakes is probably the most important contribution of seismology to society. Large earthquakes occurred in densely populated areas highlight the dramatic inadequacy of a massive portion of the buildings demonstrating the high risks of modern industrial societies. Building earthquake-resistant structures and retrofitting old buildings on a national scale can be extremely expensive and can represent an economic challenge even for developed western countries. Earthquakes can cause also several psychological problems due to the fact that such kind of disasters will result in casualties, collapsing of houses, strategic buildings and facilities and deeply affect a community. Moreover in our society it is necessary to properly plan emergency responses and rescues taking into account any possible secondary effect in order to avoid more casualties.

Mega Quakes Cascading Earthquake Hazards And Compounding Risks

Author: Katsuichiro Goda
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889454541
Size: 15.19 MB
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Large-scale earthquake hazards pose major threats to modern society, generating casualties, disrupting socioeconomic activities, and causing enormous economic loss across the world. Events, such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, highlighted the vulnerability of urban cities to catastrophic earthquakes. Accurate assessment of earthquake-related hazards (both primary and secondary) is essential to mitigate and control disaster risk exposure effectively. To date, various approaches and tools have been developed in different disciplines. However, they are fragmented over a number of research disciplines and underlying assumptions are often inconsistent. Our society and infrastructure are subjected to multiple types of cascading earthquake hazards; therefore, integrated hazard assessment and risk management strategy is needed for mitigating potential consequences due to multi-hazards. Moreover, uncertainty modeling and its impact on hazard prediction and anticipated consequences are essential parts of probabilistic earthquake hazard and risk assessment. The Research Topic is focused upon modeling and impact assessment of cascading earthquake hazards, including mainshock ground shaking, aftershock, tsunami, liquefaction, and landslide.

How Big Are The Benefits Of Economic Diversification Evidence From Earthquakes

Author: Mr. Rodney Ramcharan
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 145190603X
Size: 63.58 MB
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Economic activity is risky. Returns across economic sectors can be highly variable, potentially causing costly adjustments to consumption. However, when returns are imperfectly correlated across sectors and insurance is unavailable, diversification can reduce the economic impact of shocks. Therefore, despite the well-known efficiency benefits from specialization, the risks of too little diversification have long been acknowledged. But how big are the benefits of diversification? This paper exploits the exogeneity and randomness of earthquakes to address this question. There is robust evidence that more specialized economies experience larger declines in consumption when earthquakes occur, and consistent with the insurance channel, the cost of specialization is smaller in more financially developed economies.

The Great East Japan Earthquake And Its Impact On German Firms

Author: Ralf Bebenroth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 4431544518
Size: 69.25 MB
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This publication sheds light on how Japan-based German firms dealt with the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred in March 2011. To gather data, a questionnaire was developed and sent out in April 2012 to 244 German subsidiaries based in the Kanto area, mainly in Tokyo, with replies received from the top managers of 84 firms. In addition, the author conducted follow-up interviews with top managers of 14 of those firms in Tokyo to illuminate interesting aspects of the responses given in the questionnaires. It is shown that the overall impact on the performance of German firms was comparatively low. Those firms have now returned to normal operation and face relatively few disaster-related problems. However, firms with higher autonomy more frequently moved their offices either to the Kansai area, including Osaka, Kobe and Kyoto, or at least temporarily closed down. In retrospect, the interviews made clear that relocating or suspending operations was a costly mistake. In contrast to transaction cost theory, which states that subsidiaries should be given high autonomy in such cases of emergency, it would have been better for the headquarters offices to have communicated more intensively with the management of their subsidiaries.​

Post Earthquake Rehabilitation And Reconstruction

Author: F.Y. Cheng
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080539300
Size: 18.53 MB
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Damage assessment, rehabilitation, decision-making, social consequences, repair and reconstruction; these are all critical factors for considerations following natural disasters such as earthquakes. In order to address these issues, the United States of America and the Peoples Republic of China regularly organize bilateral symposia/workshops to investigate multiple hazard mitigation, particularly with respect to earthquake engineering. This book contains state-of-the-art reports presented by world-renowned researchers at the US/PRC Sympsosium Workshop on Post-Earthquake Rehabilitation and Reconstruction held in Kunming, Yunnan, China, May 1995. The following key areas are addressed: damage assessment of structures after earthquakes; lessons of post-earthquake recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction, including public policy, land use options, urban planning, and design; issues in and examples of decision-making, and implementation of rehabilitation and reconstruction plans and policies; repair, strengthening, retrofit and control of structures and lifeline systems, post-earthquake socio-economic problems covering issues of relief and recovery; human and organizational behavior during emergency response, and strategies for improvement; real-time monitoring of earthquake response and damage.

Engineering Geology For Society And Territory Volume 5

Author: Giorgio Lollino
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319090488
Size: 58.16 MB
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This book is one out of 8 IAEG XII Congress volumes, and deals with the theme of urban geology. Along with a rapidly growing world population, the wave of urban growth continues, causing cities to swell and new metropolitan centers to emerge. These global trends also open new ventures for underground city development. Engineering geology plays a major role in facing the increasing issues of the urban environment, such as: finding aggregates for construction works; providing adequate water supply and waste management; solving building problems associated to geological and geomorphological conditions; evaluating host rock conditions for underground constructions; preventing or mitigating geological and seismic hazards. Furthermore, this book illustrates recent advancements in sustainable land use planning, which includes conservation, protection, reclamation and landscape impact of open pit mining and alternative power generation. The Engineering Geology for Society and Territory volumes of the IAEG XII Congress held in Torino from September 15-19, 2014, analyze the dynamic role of engineering geology in our changing world and build on the four main themes of the congress: environment, processes, issues and approaches. The congress topics and subject areas of the 8 IAEG XII Congress volumes are: 1. Climate Change and Engineering Geology 2. Landslide Processes River Basins 3. Reservoir Sedimentation and Water Resources 4. Marine and Coastal Processes Urban Geology 5. Sustainable Planning and Landscape Exploitation 6. Applied Geology for Major Engineering Projects 7. Education, Professional Ethics and Public Recognition of Engineering Geology 8. Preservation of Cultural Heritage

Nature And History In Modern Italy

Author: Marco Armiero
Publisher: Ohio University Press
ISBN: 082144347X
Size: 58.69 MB
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Is Italy il bel paese—the beautiful country—where tourists spend their vacations looking for art, history, and scenery? Or is it a land whose beauty has been cursed by humanity’s greed and nature’s cruelty? The answer is largely a matter of narrative and the narrator’s vision of Italy. The fifteen essays in Nature and History in Modern Italy investigate that nation’s long experience in managing domesticated rather than wild natures and offer insight into these conflicting visions. Italians shaped their land in the most literal sense, producing the landscape, sculpting its heritage, embedding memory in nature, and rendering the two different visions inseparable. The interplay of Italy’s rich human history and its dramatic natural diversity is a subject with broad appeal to a wide range of readers.

Disaster Management And Civil Society

Author: Alpaslan Özerdem
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 9781845110536
Size: 59.42 MB
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This analysis of the aftermath of earthquakes in Japan, Turkey and India reveals important insights into how the outcome of each was affected by the different styles of state-society relationships. Using a comparative approach the book also seeks to draw out patterns and lessons that can be applied more generally to societies in the aftermath of such events. The result is a groundbreaking work that will be of major importance to all those whose work involves them in dealing with the aftermath of disasters and major conflict

Ancient Earthquakes

Author: M. Sintubin
Publisher: Geological Society of America
ISBN: 0813724716
Size: 34.86 MB
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"Ancient earthquakes are pre-instrumental earthquakes that can only be identified through indirect evidence in the archaeological (archaeoseismology) and geological (palaeoseismology) record. Special Paper 471 includes a selection of cases convincingly illustrating the different ways the archaeological record is used in earthquake studies. The first series of papers focuses on the relationship between human prehistory and tectonically active environments, and on the wide range of societal responses to historically known earthquakes. The bulk of papers concerns archaeoseismology, showing the diversity of approaches, the wide range of disciplines involved, and its potential to contribute to a better understanding of earthquake history. Ancient Earthquakes will be of interest to the broad community of earth scientists, seismologists, historians, and archaeologists active in and around archaeological sites in the many regions around the world threatened by seismic hazards. This Special Paper frames in the International Geoscience Programme IGCP 567 'Earthquake Archaeology: Archaeoseismology along the Alpine-Himalayan Seismic Zone.'"--Publisher's description.

The Economic Consequences Of A Catastrophic Earthquake

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309046394
Size: 27.88 MB
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This book presents the proceedings of an August 1990 forum held at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. Topics covered include the current and potential roles of the private sector and the various levels of government before, during, and after an earthquake occurs, and alternative strategies that could be implemented to reduce the economic impacts, with emphasis placed on the role of the insurance industry.