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Ecological Consequences Of Artificial Night Lighting

Author: Catherine Rich
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 9781597265966
Size: 42.47 MB
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While certain ecological problems associated with artificial night lighting are widely known-for instance, the disorientation of sea turtle hatchlings by beachfront lighting-the vast range of influences on all types of animals and plants is only beginning to be recognized. From nest choice and breeding success of birds to behavioral and physiological changes in salamanders, many organisms are seriously affected by human alterations in natural patterns of light and dark. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting is the first book to consider the environmental effects of the intentional illumination of the night. It brings together leading scientists from around the world to review the state of knowledge on the subject and to describe specific effects that have been observed across a full range of taxonomic groups, including mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, fishes, invertebrates, and plants. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting provides a scientific basis to begin addressing the challenge of conserving the nighttime environment. It cogently demonstrates the vital importance of this until-now neglected topic and is an essential new work for conservation planners, researchers, and anyone concerned with human impacts on the natural world.

Handbook Of Road Ecology

Author: Rodney van der Ree
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118568141
Size: 31.96 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Winner of the IENE Project Award 2016. This authoritative volume brings together some of the world’s leading researchers, academics, practitioners and transportation agency personnel to present the current status of the ecological sustainability of the linear infrastructure – primarily road, rail and utility easements – that dissect and fragment landscapes globally. It outlines the potential impacts, demonstrates how this infrastructure is being improved, and how broad ecological principles are applied to mitigate the impact of road networks on wildlife. Research and monitoring is an important aspect of road ecology, encompassing all phases of a transportation project. This book covers research and monitoring to span the entire project continuum – starting with planning and design, through construction and into maintenance and management. It focuses on impacts and solutions for species groups and specific regions, with particular emphasis on the unique challenges facing Asia, South America and Africa. Other key features: Contributions from authors originating from over 25 countries, including from all continents Each chapter summarizes important lessons, and includes lists of further reading and thoroughly up to date references Highlights principles that address key points relevant to all phases in all road projects Explains best-practices based on a number of successful international case studies Chapters are "stand-alone", but they also build upon and complement each other; extensive cross-referencing directs the reader to relevant material elsewhere in the book Handbook of Road Ecology offers a comprehensive summary of approximately 30 years of global efforts to quantify the impacts of roads and traffic and implement effective mitigation. As such, it is essential reading for those involved in the planning, design, assessment and construction of new roads; the management and maintenance of existing roads; and the modifying or retrofitting of existing roads and problem locations. This handbook is an accessible resource for both developed and developing countries, including government transportation agencies, Government environmental/conservation agencies, NGOs, and road funding and donor organisations.

Urban Remote Sensing

Author: Qihao Weng
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420008803
Size: 27.55 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Driven by advances in technology and societal needs, the next frontier in remote sensing is urban areas. With the advent of high-resolution imagery and more capable techniques, the question has become "Now that we have the technology, how do we use it?" The need for a definitive resource that explores the technology of remote sensing and the issues it can resolve in an urban setting has never been more acute. Containing contributions from world renowned experts, Urban Remote Sensing provides a review of basic concepts, methodologies, and case studies. Each chapter demonstrates how to apply up-to-date techniques to the problems identified and how to analyze research results. Organized into five sections, this book: Focuses on data, sensors, and systems considerations as well as algorithms for urban feature extraction Analyzes urban landscapes in terms of composition and structure, especially using sub-pixel analysis techniques Presents methods for monitoring, analyzing, and modeling urban growth Illustrates various approaches to urban planning and socio-economic applications of urban remote sensing Assesses the progress made to date, identifies the existing problems and challenges, and demonstrates new developments and trends in urban remote sensing This book is ideal for upper division undergraduate and graduate students, however it can also serve as a reference for researchers or those individuals interested in the remote sensing of cities in academia, and governmental and commercial sectors. Urban Remote Sensing examines how to apply remote sensing technology to urban and suburban areas.

Ecological Research At The Offshore Windfarm Alpha Ventus

Author: Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3658024623
Size: 28.53 MB
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At present and over the next few years, large-scale windfarms are being installed far off the coast of Germany in the North and Baltic Sea, making a major contribution to electricity generation from renewable energy sources. One of the German government’s aims is to ensure the environmentally sound and sustainable development of offshore wind energy. Germany’s first offshore test site, alpha ventus, was therefore accompanied from the construction phase to the first years of operation by an intensive environmental research programme, the StUKplus project, financed by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and coordinated by the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency. Marine and ecological aspects have been researched there for more than five years to improve the level of knowledge about the ecological impacts of offshore windfarms. This book provides a broad, richly illustrated overview of applied and new research methods and monitoring techniques. It summarises the key research findings on the impacts on benthic communities, fish, marine mammals and birds, also taking into account underwater sound and sediment measurements. Interpreting the results in the sense of lessons learned, new challenges and perspectives are discussed for future sustainable offshore development in German waters.

Activity Patterns In Small Mammals

Author: S. Halle
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540592440
Size: 48.33 MB
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View: 2011
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Environmental conditions change considerably in the course of 24 h with respect to abiotic factors and intra- and interspecific interactions. These changes result in limited time windows of opportunity for animal activities and, hence, the question of when to do what is subject to fitness maximisation. This volume gives a current overview of theoretical considerations and empirical findings of activity patterns in small mammals, a group in which the energetic and ecological constraints are particularly severe and the diversity of activity patterns is particularly high. Following a comparative ecological approach, for the first time activity timing is consequently treated in terms of behavioural and evolutionary ecology, providing the conceptual framework for chronoecology as a new subdiscipline within behavioural ecology. An extensive Appendix gives an introduction to methods of activity modelling and to tools for statistical pattern analysis.

The Amphibians And Reptiles Of Costa Rica

Author: Jay M. Savage
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226735375
Size: 67.60 MB
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World renowned for its biological diversity and model conservation system, Costa Rica is home to a wide variety of amphibians and reptiles, from the golden toad to the scorpion lizard and the black-headed bushmaster. Jay M. Savage has studied these fascinating creatures for more than forty years, and in The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica he provides the most comprehensive, up-to-date treatment of their biology and evolution ever produced. Savage begins with detailed discussions of the natural and cultural history of Costa Rica, setting the stage for a detailed treatment of each of the 396 species of amphibians and reptiles that may be found there. Each species account synthesizes and analyzes everything that is known about the animal's anatomy, behavior, geographic distribution, systematics, and evolutionary history and provides keys for identifying amphibians and reptiles in the field. In addition to distribution maps and systematic and morphological illustrations, the book includes color photographs of almost every known species, many taken by the distinguished nature photographers Michael and Patricia Fogden. Because Costa Rica has played, and continues to play, a pivotal role in the study of tropical biology as well as in the development of ecotourism and ecoprospecting, and because more than half of the amphibians and reptiles in Costa Rica are also found elsewhere in Central America, The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica will be an essential book for a wide audience of nature lovers, naturalists, ecotourists, field biologists, conservationists, and government planners.

Tadpoles

Author: Roy W. McDiarmid
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226557625
Size: 16.54 MB
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In our own juvenile stage, many of us received our wide-eyed introduction to the wonders of nature by watching the metamorphosis of swimming tadpoles into leaping frogs and toads. The recent alarming declines in amphibian populations worldwide and the suitability of amphibians for use in answering research questions in disciplines as diverse as molecular systematics, animal behavior, and evolutionary biology have focused enormous attention on tadpoles. Despite this popular and scientific interest, relatively little is known about these fascinating creatures. In this indispensable reference, leading experts on tadpole biology relate what we currently know about tadpoles and what we might learn from them in the future. Tadpoles provides detailed summaries of tadpole morphology, development, behavior, ecology, and environmental physiology; explores the evolutionary consequences of the tadpole stage; synthesizes available information on their biodiversity; and presents a standardized terminology and an exhaustive literature review of tadpole biology.

The Wild Silk Moths Of North America

Author: Paul M. Tuskes
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801431302
Size: 56.52 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The Saturniidae are among the largest and showiest moths in North America. This comprehensive work covers the life history and taxonomy of a hundred species and subspecies. The adults and larvae of all species are illustrated in thirty color plates, which are supplemented by line drawings of cocoons, photographs of behavior, and distribution maps. More than a natural history, this book includes chapters on population biology, life history strategies, disease and parasitoids, and the importance of silk moths to human culture. The systematic account emphasizes genetic differences among populations and the process of speciation and presents new information on experimental hybridization and life histories. For the student, researcher, and naturalist practical information is offered on collecting, rearing, and conducting original research. The entire text is referenced to an extensive bibliography.