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Electron Microprobe Analysis And Scanning Electron Microscopy In Geology

Author: S. J. B. Reed
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139446389
Size: 75.90 MB
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Originally published in 2005, this book covers the closely related techniques of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) specifically from a geological viewpoint. Topics discussed include: principles of electron-target interactions, electron beam instrumentation, X-ray spectrometry, general principles of SEM image formation, production of X-ray 'maps' showing elemental distributions, procedures for qualitative and quantitative X-ray analysis (both energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive), the use of both 'true' electron microprobes and SEMs fitted with X-ray spectrometers, and practical matters such as sample preparation and treatment of results. Throughout, there is an emphasis on geological aspects not mentioned in similar books aimed at a more general readership. The book avoids unnecessary technical detail in order to be easily accessible, and forms a comprehensive text on EMPA and SEM for geological postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers, as well as those working in industrial laboratories.

Principles Of Instrumental Analysis

Author: Douglas A. Skoog
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1305577213
Size: 79.40 MB
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PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS is the standard for courses on the principles and applications of modern analytical instruments. In the 7th edition, authors Skoog, Holler, and Crouch infuse their popular text with updated techniques and several new Instrumental Analysis in Action case studies. Updated material enhances the book's proven approach, which places an emphasis on the fundamental principles of operation for each type of instrument, its optimal area of application, its sensitivity, its precision, and its limitations. The text also introduces students to elementary analog and digital electronics, computers, and the treatment of analytical data. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Scanning Electron Microscopy And X Ray Microanalysis

Author: Joseph Goldstein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461332737
Size: 26.90 MB
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This book has evolved by processes of selection and expansion from its predecessor, Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy (PSEM), published by Plenum Press in 1975. The interaction of the authors with students at the Short Course on Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis held annually at Lehigh University has helped greatly in developing this textbook. The material has been chosen to provide a student with a general introduction to the techniques of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis suitable for application in such fields as biology, geology, solid state physics, and materials science. Following the format of PSEM, this book gives the student a basic knowledge of (1) the user-controlled functions of the electron optics of the scanning electron microscope and electron microprobe, (2) the characteristics of electron-beam-sample inter actions, (3) image formation and interpretation, (4) x-ray spectrometry, and (5) quantitative x-ray microanalysis. Each of these topics has been updated and in most cases expanded over the material presented in PSEM in order to give the reader sufficient coverage to understand these topics and apply the information in the laboratory. Throughout the text, we have attempted to emphasize practical aspects of the techniques, describing those instru ment parameters which the microscopist can and must manipulate to obtain optimum information from the specimen. Certain areas in particular have been expanded in response to their increasing importance in the SEM field. Thus energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, which has undergone a tremendous surge in growth, is treated in substantial detail.

A Handbook Of Silicate Rock Analysis

Author: P.J. Potts
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461532701
Size: 70.87 MB
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The techniques available for the chemical analysis of silicate without an appreciation of what happens in between. rocks have undergone a revolution over the last 30 years. However, to use an analytical technique most effectively, No longer is the analytical balance the only instrument used it is essential to understand its analytical characteristics, in for quantitative measurement, as it was in the days of classi particular the excitation mechanism and the response of the cal gravimetric procedures. A wide variety of instrumental signal detection system. In this book, these characteristics techniques is now commonly used for silicate rock analysis, have been described within a framework of practical ana including some that incorporate excitation sources and detec lytical aplications, especially for the routine multi-element tion systems that have been developed only in the last few analysis of silicate rocks. All analytical techniques available years. These instrumental developments now permit a wide for routine silicate rock analysis are discussed, including range of trace elements to be determined on a routine basis. some more specialized procedures. Sufficient detail is In parallel with these exciting advances, users have tended included to provide practitioners of geochemistry with a firm to become more remote from the data production process. base from which to assess current performance, and in some This is, in part, an inevitable result of the widespread intro cases, future developments.

Chemical Fundamentals Of Geology And Environmental Geoscience

Author: Robin Gill
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118957946
Size: 55.52 MB
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Chemical principles are fundamental to the Earth sciences, andgeoscience students increasingly require a firm grasp of basicchemistry to succeed in their studies. The enlarged third editionof this highly regarded textbook introduces the student to such‘geo-relevant’ chemistry, presented in the same lucidand accessible style as earlier editions, but the new edition hasbeen strengthened in its coverage of environmental geoscience andincorporates a new chapter introducing isotope geochemistry. The book comprises three broad sections. The first (Chapters1–4) deals with the basic physical chemistry of geologicalprocesses. The second (Chapters 5–8) introduces thewave-mechanical view of the atom and explains the various types ofchemical bonding that give Earth materials their diverse anddistinctive properties. The final chapters (9–11) survey thegeologically relevant elements and isotopes, and explain theirformation and their abundances in the cosmos and the Earth. Thebook concludes with an extensive glossary of terms; appendicescover basic maths, explain basic solution chemistry, and list thechemical elements and the symbols, units and constants used in thebook.

Magnetite Biomineralization And Magnetoreception In Organisms

Author: Joseph L. Kirschvink
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461303133
Size: 51.42 MB
Format: PDF
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The mystery of how migrating animals find their way over unfamiliar terrain has intrigued people for centuries, and has been the focus of productive research in the biological sci ences for several decades. Whether or not the earth's magnetic field had anything to do with their navigational abilities has sufaced and been dismissed several times, beginning at least in the mid to late 1800s. This topic generally remained out of the mainstream of scientific research for two reasons: (1) The apparent irreproducibility of many of the be havioral experiments which were supposed to demonstrate the existence of the magnetic sense; and (2) Perceived theoretical difficulties which were encountered when biophysi cists tried to understand how such a sensory system might operate. However, during the mid to late 1960s as the science of ethology (animal behavior) grew, it became clear from studies on bees and birds that the geomagnetic field is used under a variety of conditions. As more and more organisms were found to have similar abilities, the problem shifted back to the question as to the basis of this perception. Of the various schemes for trans ducing the geomagnetic field to the nervous system which have been proposed, the hy pothesis of magnetite-based magnetoreception discussed at length in this volume has per haps the best potential for explaining a wide range of these effects, even though this link is as yet clear only in the case of magnetotactic bacteria.