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Elements Of Synthesis Planning

Author: R. W. Hoffmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540792208
Size: 79.49 MB
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Synthesis is at the core of organic chemistry. In order for compounds to be studied—be it as drugs, materials, or because of their physical properties— they have to be prepared, often in multistep synthetic sequences. Thus, the target compound is at the outset of synthesis planning. Synthesis involves creating the target compound from smaller, readily available building blocks. Immediately, questions arise: From which bui- ing blocks? In which sequence? By which reactions? Nature creates many highly complex “natural products” via reaction cascades, in which an asso- ment of starting compounds present within the cell is transformed by speci c (for each target structure) combinations of modular enzymes in speci c - quences into the target compounds [1, 2]. To mimic this ef ciency is the dream of an ideal synthesis [2]. However, we are at present so far from - alising such a “one-pot” operation that actual synthesis has to be achieved via a sequence of individual discrete steps. Thus, we are left with the task of planning each synthesis individually in an optimal fashion. Synthesis planning must be conducted with regard for certain speci - tions, some of which are due to the structure of the target molecule, and some of which relate to external parameters such as costs, environmental compatibility, or novelty. We will not consider these external aspects in this context. Planning of a synthesis is based on a pool of information regarding chemical reactions that can be executed reliably and in high chemical yield.

Chemistry Of Plant Natural Products

Author: Sunil Kumar Talapatra
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642454100
Size: 12.42 MB
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Aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers working with natural products, Professors Sunil and Bani Talapatra provide a highly accessible compilation describing all aspects of plant natural products. Beginning with a general introduction to set the context, the authors then go on to carefully detail nomenclature, occurrence, isolation, detection, structure elucidation (by both degradation and spectroscopic techniques) stereochemistry, conformation, synthesis, biosynthesis, biological activity and commercial applications of the most important natural products of plant origin. Each chapter also includes detailed references (with titles) and a list of recommended books for additional study making this outstanding treatise a useful resource for teachers of chemistry and researchers working in universities, research institutes and industry.

Cognitive Patterns

Author: Karen M. Gardner
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521649988
Size: 45.66 MB
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Presents the concepts and terminology of cognitive patterns and modeling and explains the uniqueness of cognitive patterns as an approach in modeling business systems and processes.

Software Development In Chemistry 4

Author: Johann Gasteiger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642754309
Size: 62.82 MB
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Bringing together scientists from the various disciplines of chemistry who are actively engaged in developing software and using computers to solve their problems was the main objective of the 4th workshop 'Computers in Chemistry' (November 22-24, 1989) held in Hochfilzen, Tyrol. Fields covered include molecular modelling, chemometrics, synthesis planning, computer science.

Geographical Information Systems For Urban And Regional Planning

Author: Henk J. Scholten
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401716773
Size: 19.25 MB
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In August 1989, a Summer Institute was held at the Academie van Bouwkunst, the seventeenth century home of Amsterdam's School of Architecture, Town Planning and Landscape. The meeting brought together experts in Geographical Information Systems from throughout the world to address an international audience of planners. The contents of this book reflect many of the themes that were presented and discussed at the conference. The Summer Institute, let alone this volume, would not have been possible without the support of the International Association for the Development and Management of Existing and New Towns (INTNAIVN), the International Society of City and Regional Planners (ISoCaRP), The National Physical Planning Agency of the Netherlands (RPD) and the Berlage Studio. We wish to acknowledge the assistance provided by these organisations and by the various sponsors: The Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment, the Municipality of Amsterdam, Logisterion b.v., ESRI, UNISYS, MABON b.v., SPSS, PRIME Computer Inc., PANDATA. The provision of hardware facilities by the various computer companies allowed immensely valuable 'hands on' experience to be gained by all the participants.

Current Trends In Knowledge Acquisition

Author: Bob Wielinga
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 9789051990362
Size: 75.65 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Knowledge acquisition has become a major area of artificial intelligence and cognitive science research. The papers in this book show that the area of knowledge acquisition for knowledge-based systems is still a diverse field in which a large number of research topics are being addressed. However, several main themes run through the papers. First, the issues of integrating knowledge from different sources and K.A. tools is a salient topic in many papers. A second major topic in the papers is that of knowledge modelling. Research in knowledge-based systems emphasises the use of generic models of reasoning and its underlying knowledge. An important trend in the area of knowledge modelling aims at the formalisation of knowledge models. Where the field of knowledge acquisition was without tools and techniques years ago, now there is a rapidly growing body of techniques and tools. Apart from the integrated workbenches already mentioned above, several papers in this book present new tools. Although knowledge acquisition and machine learning have been considered as separate subfields of AI, there is a tendency for the two fields to come together. This publication combines machine learning techniques with more conventional knowledge elicitation techniques. A framework is presented in which reasoning, problem solving and learning together form a knowledge intensive system that can acquire knowledge from its own experience.

Land Use Planning Made Plain

Author: Hok-Lin Leung
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 0802085520
Size: 71.20 MB
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A clear and practical guide to coherent planning principles and the making and implementation of land use decisions, focused at the city level and addressing the major debates in land planning today.

Human Resources Administration For Educational Leaders

Author: M. Scott Norton
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412957591
Size: 44.26 MB
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A comprehensive and research-based text detailing the important relationship between school administration and human resources administration. "The author provides [students] with specific strategies for navigating the treacherous waters of personnel selection, development, retention, and removal. I wish I had the book when I began my work as Director of Personnel." —Zach Kelehear University of South Carolina Human Resources Administration for Educational Leaders balances theory and pedagogy to demonstrate the historical evolution of the human resources function in education, the link between human resources and organizational effectiveness, and the new trends in human resources accountability. Key Features and Benefits: Provides students with samples of the tools that practicing HR administrators use for planning, recruiting, interviewing, selecting, evaluating, compensating, and developing staff personnel Dedicates separate chapters to areas often neglected in other texts: collective bargaining, human resources responsibility for classified personnel, accountability, and organizational climate and the human resources function Features engaging simulations in the form of case studies and critical questions to help students apply the concepts to practice Accompanied by High-Quality Ancillaries Instructors' Resources on CD-ROM includes a test bank, sample syllabi, PowerPoint slide presentations, and more. Contact SAGE to request your copy. Meet the author! http://coe.asu.edu/elps/faculty/norton.php