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American Environmentalism

Author: J. Michael Martinez
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0415633184
Size: 60.47 MB
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Protecting the natural environment and promoting sustainability have become important objectives, but achieving such goals presents myriad challenges for even the most committed environmentalist. American Environmentalism: Philosophy, History, and Public Policy examines whether competing interests can be reconciled while developing consistent, coherent, effective public policy to regulate uses and protection of the natural environment without destroying the national economy. It then reviews a range of possible solutions. The book delves into key normative concepts that undergird American perspectives on nature by providing an overview of philosophical concepts found in the western intellectual tradition, the presuppositions inherent in neoclassical economics, and anthropocentric (human-centered) and biocentric (earth-centered) positions on sustainability. It traces the evolution of attitudes about nature from the time of the Ancient Greeks through Europeans in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the Enlightenment and the American Founders, the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and up to the present. Building on this foundation, the author examines the political landscape as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), industry leaders, and government officials struggle to balance industrial development with environmental concerns. Outrageous claims, silly misrepresentations, bogus arguments, absurd contentions, and overblown prophesies of impending calamities are bandied about by many parties on all sides of the debate—industry spokespeople, elected representatives, unelected regulators, concerned citizens, and environmental NGOs alike. In lieu of descending into this morass, the author circumvents the silliness to explore the crucial issues through a more focused, disciplined approach. Rather than engage in acrimonious debate over minutiae, as so often occurs in the context of "green" claims, he recasts the issue in a way that provides a cohesive look at all sides. This effort may be quixotic, but how else to cut the Gordian knot?

Construction Materials And Structures

Author: S.O. Ekolu
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 1614994668
Size: 47.39 MB
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The two volumes of these Proceedings contain about 200 conference papers and 10 keynote papers presented at the First International Conference on Construction Materials and Structures, held in Johannesburg, South Africa from 24 to 26 November 2014. It includes sections on Materials and characterization; Durability of construction materials; Structural implications, performance, service life; Sustainability, waste utilization, the environment; and Building science and construction.

Structural Cross Sections

Author: Naveed Anwar
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0128044837
Size: 58.24 MB
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Structural Cross Sections: Analysis and Design provides valuable information on this key subject covering almost all aspects including theoretical formulation, practical analysis and design computations, various considerations and issues related to cross-sectional behavior, and computer applications for determination of cross-sectional response. The presented approach can handle all complex shapes, material behaviors and configurations. The book starts with a clear and rigorous overview of role of cross-sections and their behavior in overall structural design process. Basic aspects of structural mechanics are reviewed and procedures to determine basic cross-sectional properties, stress and strain distributions, stress resultants and other response parameters, are provided. A brief discussion about the role of material behavior in cross-sectional response is also included. The unified and integrated approach to determine axial-flexural capacity of cross-sections is utilized in development of P-M and M-M interaction diagrams of cross-sections of various shapes. The behavior and design of cross-sections subjected to shear and torsion is also included with emphasis on reinforced concrete sections. Several detailed flow charts are included to demonstrate the procedures used in ACI, BS and Euro codes for design of cross-section subjected to shear and torsion, followed by solved examples. The book also presents the discussion about various factors that can lead to ductile response of cross-sections, especially those made of reinforced concrete. The definition and development of action-deformation curves especially moment-curvature (-) curve is discussed extensively. Various factors such as confinement, rebar distribution and axial load effect on the ductility are shown through examples. The use of moment-curvature curve to compute various section response parameters is also explained though equations and examples. Several typical techniques and materials for retrofitting of cross-sections of reinforced concrete beams, columns and slabs etc. are reviewed. A brief discussion of various informative references related to the evaluation and retrofitting of structures is included for practical applications. Towards the end, the book provides an overview of various software applications available for cross-section design and analysis. A framework for the development of a general-purpose cross-section analysis software, is presented and various features of few commercially available software packages are compared using some example cross-sections. Presents a generalized procedure to compute axial-flexural capacity of cross-sections of any number and configuration of materials Heavily illustrated with schematics, diagrams, and line drawings Includes the convenient approach to develop P-M interaction, M-M Interaction and Moment-Curvature relationships for reinforced concrete cross-sections Provides detailed flowcharts for code-based (ACI, BS and Eurocode) design of reinforced concrete cross-sections subjected to axial-flexural actions as well as shear-torsion. Presents formulae and expressions to compute various commonly used cross-sectional properties of common section shapes Discusses various parameters affecting the ductility of cross-sections and the role of confinement in the behavior reinforced concrete cross-sections Reviews various practical retrofitting techniques to rehabilitate the damaged cross-sections Covers the concepts discussed in main text using various solved and unsolved numerical examples Presents an overview of various computer applications and packages available for analysis of cross-sections Supported by author-developed computer-based apps to be used in conjunction with the practical applications presented in the book

Sustainable Construction Materials

Author: Ravindra K. Dhir OBE
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0081009917
Size: 68.60 MB
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Sustainable Construction Materials: Recycled Aggregate focuses on the massive systematic need that is necessary to encourage the uptake of recycled and secondary materials (RSM) in the construction industry. This book is the fifth and the last of the series on sustainable construction materials and like the previous four, it is also different to the norm. Its uniqueness lies in using the newly developed, Analytical Systemisation Method, in building the data-matrix sourced from 1413 publications, contributed by 2213 authors from 965 institutions in 67 countries, from 1977 to 2018, on the subject of recycled aggregate as a construction material, and systematically analysing, evaluating and modelling this information for use of the material as an aggregate concrete and mortar, geotechnics and road pavement applications. Environmental issues, case studies and standards are also discussed. The work establishes what is already known and can be used to further progress the use of sustainable construction materials. It can also help to avoid repetitive research and save valuable resources. The book is structured in an incisive and easy to digest manner and is particularly suited for researchers, academics, design engineers, specifiers, contractors, and government bodies dealing with construction works. Provides an exhaustive and comprehensively organized list of globally-based published literature spanning 5000 references Offers an analysis, evaluation, repackaging and modeling of existing knowledge that encourages more responsible use of waste materials Provides a wealth of knowledge for use in many sectors relating to the construction profession, including academia, research, practice and adoption of RSM

Fatigue And Fracture Of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints

Author: A P Vassilopoulos
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857098128
Size: 32.48 MB
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It is commonly accepted that the majority of engineering failures happen due to fatigue or fracture phenomena. Adhesive bonding is a prevailing joining technique, widely used for critical connections in composite structures. However, the lack of knowledge regarding fatigue and fracture behaviour, and the shortage of tools for credible fatigue design, hinders the potential benefits of adhesively bonded joints. The demand for reliable and safe structures necessitates deep knowledge in this area in order to avoid catastrophic structural failures. This book reviews recent research in the field of fatigue and fracture of adhesively-bonded composite joints. The first part of the book discusses the experimental investigation of the reliability of adhesively-bonded composite joints, current research on understanding damage mechanisms, fatigue and fracture, durability and ageing as well as implications for design. The second part of the book covers the modelling of bond performance and failure mechanisms in different loading conditions. A detailed reference work for researchers in aerospace and engineering Expert coverage of different adhesively bonded composite joint structures An overview of joint failure

Green Composites

Author: Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811319693
Size: 36.22 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book highlights the production of green composites from various sustainable raw materials. We now live in an environmentally conscious era, in which sustainable raw materials (renewable, biodegradable, recycled), sustainable processing sequences, the production of recyclable and biodegradable products, and avoiding the depletion of renewable resources are key considerations with regarding to producing any product. The textile sector is no exception. Accordingly, this book addresses these aspects in connection with textiles, and discusses how they can be actively practiced.

Nanotechnology

Author: M.H. Fulekar
Publisher: I. K. International Pvt Ltd
ISBN: 9380026986
Size: 58.84 MB
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Nanotechnology: Importance & Applications highlights the latest developments and advances in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology and their wide applications in design and development of Material Science and Devices, Energy, Drug Delivery, Cosmetics, Biology, Biotechnology, Tissue Engineering, Bioinformatics, Information Technology, Agriculture and Food, Environmental Protection, Health Risk, Ethics, Regulations and future prospects, This book will be useful to both Undergraduate and Postgraduate students, teachers and researchers, scientists and industrial personnel working in the field of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.

Thin Walled Structures

Author: J. Loughlan
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780750310062
Size: 63.76 MB
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This volume contains the papers presented at the Fourth International Conference of Thin-Walled Structures (ICTWS4), and contains 110 papers which, collectively, provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the progress made in research, development and manufacture in recent years in thin-walled structures. The presentations at the conference have representation form 35 different countries and their topical areas of interest include Aeroelactic response and structural-acoustic coupling, Aerospace structures, Analysis, design and manufacture, Cold-formed structures, Cyclic loading, Dynamic loading, crushing and energy absorption, Fatigue, fracture and damage tolerance, Plates, stiffened panels and plated structures, Polymer matrix composite members, Sandwich structures, Shell structures, Thin-walled beams and columns and Vibrational response.The range of applications of thin-walled structures has become increasingly diverse with a considerable deployment of thin-walled structural elements and systems being found in a wide range of areas within Aeronautical, Automotive, Civil, Mechanical, Chemical and Offshore Engineering fields. This volume is an extremely useful reference volume for researchers and designers working within a wide range of engineering disciplines towards the design, development and manufacture of efficient thin-walled structural systems.

Sandwich Structures 7 Advancing With Sandwich Structures And Materials

Author: O.T. Thomsen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402034442
Size: 47.40 MB
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Sandwich structures represent a special form of a laminated composite material or structural elements, where a relatively thick, lightweight and compliant core material separates thin stiff and strong face sheets. The faces are usually made of laminated polymeric based composite materials, and typically, the core can be a honeycomb type material, a polymeric foam or balsa wood. The faces and the core are joined by adhesive bonding, which ensures the load transfer between the sandwich constituent parts. The result is a special laminate with very high bending stiffness and strength to weight ratios. Sandwich structures are being used successfully for a variety of applications such as spacecraft, aircraft, train and car structures, wind turbine blades, boat/ship superstructures, boat/ship hulls and many others. The overall objective of the 7th International Conference on Sandwich Structures (ICSS-7) is to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of the latest research and technology on all aspects of sandwich structures and materials, spanning the entire spectrum of research to applications in all the fields listed above.

Uninhabited Air Vehicles

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309171779
Size: 65.93 MB
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U.S. Air Force (USAF) planners have envisioned that uninhabited air vehicles (UAVs), working in concert with inhabited vehicles, will become an integral part of the future force structure. Current plans are based on the premise that UAVs have the potential to augment, or even replace, inhabited aircraft in a variety of missions. However, UAV technologies must be better understood before they will be accepted as an alternative to inhabited aircraft on the battlefield. The U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) requested that the National Research Council, through the National Materials Advisory Board and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, identify long-term research opportunities for supporting the development of technologies for UAVs. The objectives of the study were to identify technological developments that would improve the performance and reliability of “generation-after-next†UAVs at lower cost and to recommend areas of fundamental research in materials, structures, and aeronautical technologies. The study focused on innovations in technology that would “leapfrog†current technology development and would be ready for scaling-up in the post-2010 time frame (i.e., ready for use on aircraft by 2025).