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Genomics And Society

Author: George Gaskell
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1136548033
Size: 80.20 MB
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The impact of genomics on society has been the focus of debate and conflict across the world. Contrasting views of risks and benefits, trust in science and regulation, the understanding of science, media coverage and mobilization of the public by civil society groups all have been cited as drivers of public opinion. The long running controversy is a signal that the public's view cannot be ignored in the development and implementation of new technologies arising out of genomics such as agricultural biotechnologies, genetic testing and the uses of genetic information, the cloning of human cells and tissues and transgenic animals. Written by a progressive international group of social scientists from Europe, North America and Japan, this volume presents a series of comparative perspectives on the social, ethical and legal implications of genomics. The result is a book which encapsulates the lessons to be learned from the controversies of the 1990s and raises the level of debate on the societal implications of new developments in genomics.

International Science And Technology Education

Author: Ortwin Renn
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317500202
Size: 59.67 MB
Format: PDF
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Education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is crucial for taking advantage of the prospects of new scientific discoveries initiating or promoting technological changes, and managing opportunities and risks associated with innovations. This book explores the emerging perspectives and methodologies of STEM education and its relationship to the cultural understanding of science and technology in an international context. The authors provide a unique perspective on the subject, presenting materials and experiences from non-European industrialized as well as industrializing countries, including China, Japan, South Korea, India, Egypt, Brazil and the USA. The chapters offer a wide scope of interpretations and comparative reviews of STEM education by including narrative elements about cultural developments, considering the influence of culture and social perceptions on technological and social change, and applying innovative tools of qualitative social research. The book represents a comprehensive and multidisciplinary review of the current status and future challenges facing STEM education across the world, including issues such as globalization, interdependencies of norms and values, effects on equity and social justice as well as resilience. Overall the volume provides valuable insights for a broad and comprehensive international comparison of STEM philosophies, approaches and experiences.

Policy Legitimacy Science And Political Authority

Author: Michael Heazle
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317420020
Size: 59.56 MB
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Voters expect their elected representatives to pursue good policy and presume this will be securely founded on the best available knowledge. Yet when representatives emphasize their reliance on expert knowledge, they seem to defer to people whose authority derives, not politically from the sovereign people, but from the presumed objective status of their disciplinary bases. This book examines the tensions between political authority and expert authority in the formation of public policy in liberal democracies. It aims to illustrate and better understand the nature of these tensions rather than to argue specific ways of resolving them. The various chapters explore the complexity of interaction between the two forms of authority in different policy domains in order to identify both common elements and differences. The policy domains covered include: climate geoengineering discourses; environmental health; biotechnology; nuclear power; whaling; economic management; and the use of force. This volume will appeal to researchers and to convenors of post-graduate courses in the fields of policy studies, foreign policy decision-making, political science, environmental studies, democratic system studies, and science policy studies.

Science Society And The Supermarket

Author: David Castle
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470055499
Size: 35.96 MB
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The new science of nutrigenomics and its ethical and societal challenges Gene-diet interactions--which underlie relatively benign lactose intolerance to life-threatening conditions such as cardiovascular disease--have long been known. But until now, scientists lacked the tools to fully understand the underlying mechanisms that cause these conditions. In recent years, however, strides in human genomics and the nutritional sciences have allowed for the advancement of a new science--dubbed nutrigenomics. Although this science may lead to personalized nutrition and dietary recommendations that can mitigate, prevent, or cure sickness, current oversight mechanisms and regulations for emerging direct-to-public nutrigenomic tests are still in their infancy. Science, Society, and the Supermarket: The Opportunities and Challenges of Nutrigenomics discusses the many ethical, legal, and social challenges presented by nutrigenomics. Concerning itself with the basic uses of nutrigenomic research as well as its clinical and commercial aspects, this text sheds light on such issues as: * Opportunities and challenges for nutrigenomics * The science of nutrigenomics * The ethics of nutrigenomic tests and information both in a clinical setting and by private third parties * Alternatives for nutrigenomics service delivery * Nutrigenomics and the regulation of health claims for foods and drugs * Equity and access to nutrigenomics in industrialized and developing countries * Intellectual property issues By taking a proactive bioethical stance on the subject, Science, Society, and the Supermarket offers a thorough and timely analysis on both the benefits and risks of nutrigenomics. Along with a thought-provoking examination of the issues, this book provides ethical guidelines and recommendations for further study in policy and regulatory development.

Nutrition And Genomics

Author: David Castle
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080920825
Size: 40.47 MB
Format: PDF
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Nutrigenomics is the rapidly developing field of science that studies nutrient-gene interaction. This field has broad implications for understanding the interaction of human genomics and nutrition, but can also have very specific implications for individual dietary recommendations in light of personal genetics. Predicted applications for nutrigenomics include genomics-based dietary guidelines and personalized nutrition based on individual genetic tests. These developments have sweeping ethical, legal and regulatory implications for individuals, corporations and governments. This book brings together experts in ethics, law, regulatory analysis, and communication studies to identify and address relevant issues in the emerging field of nutritional genomics. Contributing authors are experts in the social aspects of biotechnology innovation, with expertise in nutrigenomics. From addressing the concern that nutrigenomics will transform food into medicine and undermine pleasures associated with eating to the latest in the science of nutrigenomics, this book provides a world-wide perspective on the potential impact of nutrigenomics on our association with food. *Explores the rapidly developing, yet not fully understood, impact of nutrigenomics on the relationship to food medicalization, genetic privacy, nutrition and health. *Provides ground for further exploration to identify issues and provide analysis to aid in policy and regulation development *Provides ethical and legal insights into this unfolding science, as well as serving as a model for thinking about issues arising in other fields of science and technology

Genomics And Society

Author: Dhavendra Kumar
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0127999213
Size: 72.67 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Genomics and Society; Ethical, Legal-Cultural, and Socioeconomic Implications is the first book to address the vast and thorny web of ELSI topics identified as core priorities of the NHGRI in 2011. The work addresses fundamental issues of biosociety and bioeconomy as the revolution in biology moves from research lab to healthcare system. Of particular interest to healthcare practitioners, bioethicists, and health economists, and of tangential interest to the gamut of applied social scientists investigating the societal impact of new medical paradigms, the work describes a myriad of issues around consent, confidentiality, rights, patenting, regulation, and legality in the new era of genomic medicine. Addresses the vast and thorny web of ELSI topics identified as core priorities of the NHGRI in 2011 Presents the core fundamental issues of biosociety and bioeconomy as the revolution in biology moves from research lab to healthcare system Describes a myriad of issues around consent, including confidentiality, rights, patenting, regulation, and more

Ethical Challenges In Genomics Research

Author: Paula Boddington
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642236987
Size: 79.77 MB
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New developments in science and technology have resulted in shifting ethical challenges in many areas including in genomics research. This book enables those who are involved in genomics research, whether as researcher, participant or policy maker, to understand the ethical issues currently developing in this field and to participate actively in these important debates. A clear account is given of how science and technology are outstripping the capacity of previous ethical regulations to cope with current issues, together with practical illustrations of possible ways forward. Key ethical ideas are presented, drawing on the history of research regulation and on an account of the particular challenges arising in the field of genomics. The book uses a grounded, practical approach to explaining ethical concepts and issues which is geared to enhancing interdisciplinary dialogue. Its broad approach to ethical issues includes relevant considerations from social psychology and there is a particular emphasis on understanding the problems of ethical regulations and practice in the institutional and social context of research. A glossary and numerous text boxes explaining relevant terms and key ideas help to make the work an invaluable resource for both beginners and experts in the field.

Issues In Returning Individual Results From Genome Research Using Population Based Banked Specimens With A Focus On The National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309307074
Size: 28.12 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Population surveys traditionally collect information from respondents about their circumstances, behaviors, attitudes, and other characteristics. In recent years, many surveys have been collecting not only questionnaire answers, but also biologic specimens such as blood samples, saliva, and buccal swabs, from which a respondent's DNA can be ascertained along with other biomarkers (e.g., the level of a certain protein in the blood). The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), sponsored by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), has been collecting and storing genetic specimens since 1991, and other surveys, such as the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) funded by the National Institute on Aging, have followed suit. In order to give their informed consent to participate in a survey, respondents need to know the disposition and use of their data. Will their data be used for one research project and then destroyed, or will they be archived for secondary use? Sponsors of repeated cross-sectional surveys, such as NHANES, and of longitudinal surveys that follow panels of individuals over time, such as HRS, generally want to retain data for a wide range of secondary uses, many of which are not explicitly foreseen at the time of data collection. They typically inform respondents that their data will be stored in a secure manner and may be provided to researchers with suitable protections against individual identification. The addition of biologic specimens to a survey adds complications for storing, protecting, and providing access to such data and measurements made from them. There are also questions of whether, when, and for which biologic measurements the results should be reported back to individual respondents. Recently, the cost of full genomic sequencing has plummeted, and research findings are beginning to accumulate that bear up under replication and that potentially have clinical implications for a respondent. For example, knowing that one possesses a certain gene or gene sequence might suggest that one should seek a certain kind of treatment or genetic counseling or inform one's blood relatives. Biomedical research studies, in which participants are asked to donate tissues for genetic studies and are usually told that they will not be contacted with any results, are increasingly confronting the issue of when and which DNA results to return to participants. Issues in Returning Individual Results from Genome Research Using Population-Based Banked Specimens, with a Focus on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is the summary of a workshop convened in February 2013 by the Committee on National Statistics in the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education of the National Research Council. This report considers how population surveys, in particular NHANES, should implement the reporting of results from genomic research using stored specimens and address informed consent for future data collection as well as for the use of banked specimens covered by prior informed consent agreements. The report will be of interest to survey organizations that include or contemplate including the collection of biologic specimens in population surveys for storing for genetic research. The issues involved are important for advancing social, behavioral, and biomedical knowledge while appropriately respecting and protecting individual survey respondents.

Genetics Primer For Exercise Science And Health

Author: Stephen M. Roth
Publisher: Human Kinetics
ISBN: 9780736063432
Size: 77.33 MB
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Genetics Primer for Exercise Science and Healthis the first text dedicated to the basic concepts of genetics in relation to the broad range of topics in exercise science and health. Author Stephen M. Roth, PhD, makes the content comprehensible for readers who are unfamiliar with genetics without sacrificing the foundational and critical understanding necessary for interpreting research findings and incorporating genetics into research programs. Genetics Primer for Exercise Science and Healthmaintains a practical focus and addresses common concerns when preparing to study genetics, such as how to use online search tools to identify existing research literature and how to identify and select candidate genes using genome databases. Through this text, readers will discover these concepts: -The basics of DNA and genetics as they relate to health, physical activity, and sport -Specific skills and strategies for interpreting and applying genetics findings in research -How genetics research may affect sport performance training and clinical practice -The ethical issues raised by genetics in society and sport Special focus sections are incorporated throughout the text, providing expanded discussions of interesting topics in each chapter. Students see examples of how the principles described in the book have played out in real-life research, and they receive explicit instructions on planning and interpreting genetics research. Pedagogical aids such as summaries, key terms, and review questions also make this text ideal for efficient learning. Part Ipresents readers with the basic biology and genetics information they need in order to understand and apply the information to exercise science. Part IIexplores the research and design methods that will help readers interpret and apply their findings. Part IIIaddresses some of the current research findings in the area of genetics in exercise and health and discusses current issues in the field, including the potential for misuse of new genetic technologies and the ethics involved in gene doping. Genetics Primer for Exercise Science and Healthis the second volume in Human Kinetics' Primers in Exercise Science Series, which provides students and professionals with a nonintimidating basic understanding of the science behind its topic and, where appropriate, how that science is applied. These books are written by leading researchers and teachers in their respective areas of expertise. The authors present in an easy-to-understand manner the essential concepts in dynamic, complex areas of scientific knowledge. The books in the series are ideal for researchers and professionals who need some background in an unfamiliar scientific area. The books also function as accessible basic references for those who will be returning to the material often. This particular book adds a health dimension to the exercise science focus of the series, with discussions on disease- and health-related information. Genetic research will play an important role in the future practice of exercise science and health, requiring students and professionals to have this basic knowledge for success in their careers. Through its practical presentation of current and basic topics, Genetics Primer for Exercise Science and Healthmakes the case for more universities to introduce genetics courses to their curricula. Having the essential topics of genetics in a single, practical introductory text will facilitate the work of instructors, students, and professionals.

A Guide To The Human Genome Project

Author: Susan L. Speaker
Publisher: Chemical Heritage Foundation
ISBN: 9780941901109
Size: 12.35 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This simple, concise introduction to the HGP for the general reader explores the origins of the genome project and reactions in the scientific community; important technologies and techniques; institutions connected with the HGP, including designated genome centers, important suppliers of resources, and corporations; systems of communication; and ethical, legal, and social issues. A publication of the Biomolecular Sciences Initiative of CHF's Beckman Center for the History of Chemistry.