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Groundwater Geochemistry And Isotopes

Author: Ian Clark
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466591749
Size: 64.87 MB
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Understand the Environmental Processes That Control Groundwater Quality The integration of environmental isotopes with geochemical studies is now recognized as a routine approach to solving problems of natural and contaminated groundwater quality. Advanced sampling and analytical methods are readily accessible and affordable, providing abundant geochemical and isotope data for high spatial resolution and high frequency time series. Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes provides the theoretical understanding and interpretive methods and contains a useful chapter presenting the basics of sampling and analysis. This text teaches the thermodynamic basis and principal reactions involving the major ions, gases and isotopes during groundwater recharge, weathering and redox evolution. Subsequent chapters apply these principles in hands-on training for dating young groundwaters with tritium and helium and ancient systems with radiocarbon, radiohalides and noble gases, and for tracing reactions of the major contaminants of concern in groundwaters. Covers the basics of solutes, gases and isotopes in water, and concentration-activity relationships and reactions Describes tracing the water cycle, weathering, and the geochemical evolution of water quality Explores dating groundwater as young as a few years to over hundreds of millions of years Uses case studies to demonstrate the application of geochemistry and isotopes for contaminated groundwaters Accessible to consultants and practitioners as well as undergraduates, Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes presents the basics of environmental isotopes and geochemistry, and provides you with a full understanding of their use in natural and contaminated groundwater.

Groundwater Geochemistry

Author: Broder J. Merkel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540746683
Size: 29.90 MB
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To understand hydrochemistry and to analyze natural as well as man-made impacts on aquatic systems, hydrogeochemical models have been used since the 1960’s and more frequently in recent times. Numerical groundwater flow, transport, and geochemical models are important tools besides classical deterministic and analytical approaches. Solving complex linear or non-linear systems of equations, commonly with hundreds of unknown parameters, is a routine task for a PC. Modeling hydrogeochemical processes requires a detailed and accurate water analysis, as well as thermodynamic and kinetic data as input. Thermodynamic data, such as complex formation constants and solubility-products, are often provided as databases within the respective programs. However, the description of surface-controlled reactions (sorption, cation exchange, surface complexation) and kinetically controlled reactions requires additional input data. Unlike groundwater flow and transport models, thermodynamic models, in principal, do not need any calibration. However, considering surface-controlled or kinetically controlled reaction models might be subject to calibration. Typical problems for the application of geochemical models are: • speciation • determination of saturation indices • adjustment of equilibria/disequilibria for minerals or gases • mixing of different waters • modeling the effects of temperature • stoichiometric reactions (e.g. titration) • reactions with solids, fluids, and gaseous phases (in open and closed systems) • sorption (cation exchange, surface complexation) • inverse modeling • kinetically controlled reactions • reactive transport Hydrogeochemical models depend on the quality of the chemical analysis, the boundary conditions presumed by the program, theoretical concepts (e.g.

Environmental Isotopes In Hydrogeology

Author: Ian D. Clark
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482242915
Size: 39.80 MB
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Groundwater is an increasingly important resource to human populations around the world, and the study and protection of groundwater is an essential part of hydrogeology - the subset of hydrology that concentrates on the subsurface. Environmental isotopes, naturally occurring nuclides in water and solutes, have become fundamental tools for tracing the recharge, history, and contamination of groundwater.

Water Resources In Arid Areas The Way Forward

Author: Osman Abdalla
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319518569
Size: 58.32 MB
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This book presents the most recent innovations, trends, concerns and practical challenges, and solutions in the field of water resources for arid areas. It gathers outstanding contributions presented at the International Water Conference on Water Resources in Arid Areas (IWC 2016), which was held in Muscat, Oman in March 2016. The individual papers discuss challenges and solutions to alleviate water resource scarcity in arid areas, including water resources management, the introduction of modern irrigation systems, natural groundwater recharge, construction of dams for artificial recharge, use of treated wastewater, and desalination technologies. As such, the book provides a platform for the exchange of recent advances in water resources science and research, which are essential to improving the critical water situation

Isotope Tracers In Catchment Hydrology

Author: C. Kendall
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 008092915X
Size: 54.62 MB
Format: PDF
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This book represents a new "earth systems" approach to catchments that encompasses the physical and biogeochemical interactions that control the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the system. The text provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of catchment hydrology, principles of isotope geochemistry, and the isotope variability in the hydrologic cycle -- but the main focus of the book is on case studies in isotope hydrology and isotope geochemistry that explore the applications of isotope techniques for investigating modern environmental problems. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology is the first synthesis of physical hydrology and isotope geochemistry with catchment focus, and is a valuable reference for professionals and students alike in the fields of hydrology, hydrochemistry, and environmental science. This important interdisciplinary text provides extensive guidelines for the application of isotope techniques for all investigatores facing the challenge of protecting precious water, soil, and ecological resources from the ever-increasing problems associated with population growth and environmental change, including those from urban development and agricultural land uses.

Handbook Of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry

Author: Mark Baskaran
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642106378
Size: 17.89 MB
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Applications of radioactive and stable isotopes have revolutionized our understanding of the Earth and near-earth surface processes. The utility of the isotopes are ever-increasing and our sole focus is to bring out the applications of these isotopes as tracers and chronometers to a wider audience so that they can be used as powerful tools to solve environmental problems. New developments in this field remain mostly in peer-reviewed journal articles and hence our goal is to synthesize these findings for easy reference for students, faculty, regulators in governmental and non-governmental agencies, and environmental companies. While this volume maintains its rigor in terms of its depth of knowledge and quantitative information, it contains the breadth needed for wide variety problems and applications in the environmental sciences. This volume presents all of the newer and older applications of isotopes pertaining to the environmental problems in one place that is readily accessible to readers. This book not only has the depth and rigor that is needed for academia, but it has the breadth and case studies to illustrate the utility of the isotopes in a wide variety of environments (atmosphere, oceans, lakes, rivers and streams, terrestrial environments, and sub-surface environments) and serves a large audience, from students and researchers, regulators in federal, state and local governments, and environmental companies.

Isotope Geochemistry

Author: Heinrich D Holland
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080967110
Size: 36.91 MB
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After the discovery that elements were commonly composed of isotopes, there developed a range of studies of the variability of isotopic compositions in Earth materials, which was able to add to our understanding of Earth processes and history. This collection of chapters from the Treatise on Geochemistry describes the range of isotopic studies. The chapters are grouped into the following categories: light stable isotopes, radiogenic tracers, noble gases and radioactive tracers. The first three groups depend on mass spectrometric measurements. The section on radioactive tracers employs both radioactive counting techniques and the newly developed accelerator mass spectrometric techniques. Comprehensive, interdisciplinary and authoritative content selected by leading subject experts Robust illustrations, figures and tables Affordably priced sampling of content from the full Treatise on Geochemistry

A The Terrestrial Environment

Author: P. Fritz
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483289613
Size: 39.22 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry, Volume 1: The Terrestrial Environment, A focuses on isotope hydrology and aqueous geochemistry, as well as an overview of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen isotopes in terrestrial systems. The selection first elaborates on the isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation, carbon-14 in hydrogeological studies, and environmental isotopes in groundwater hydrology. Concerns cover groundwater dating, mechanism of salinization, groundwater recharge, models of the isotope fractionation during evaporation and condensation of water in the atmosphere, and stable isotope distribution in atmospheric waters. The book then examines environmental isotopes in ice and snow, isotopic evidence on environments of geothermal systems, and sulfur and oxygen isotopes in aqueous sulfur compounds. Discussions focus on geochemistry and isotope distribution of aqueous sulfur compounds, isotopic dating of geothermal waters, origin of chemical constituents, geothermometry, isotope distribution during the reduction of a temperate snow cover, and snow and ice isotope hydrology. The manuscript explores environmental isotopes as environmental and climatological indicators, sulfur isotopes in the environment, nitrogen-15 in the natural environment, and the isotopic composition of reduced organic carbon. The selection is a valuable reference for researchers interested in isotope geochemistry.