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Information Algebras

Author: Juerg Kohlas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447100093
Size: 18.77 MB
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Information usually comes in pieces, from different sources. It refers to different, but related questions. Therefore information needs to be aggregated and focused onto the relevant questions. Considering combination and focusing of information as the relevant operations leads to a generic algebraic structure for information. This book introduces and studies information from this algebraic point of view. Algebras of information provide the necessary abstract framework for generic inference procedures. They allow the application of these procedures to a large variety of different formalisms for representing information. At the same time they permit a generic study of conditional independence, a property considered as fundamental for knowledge presentation. Information algebras provide a natural framework to define and study uncertain information. Uncertain information is represented by random variables that naturally form information algebras. This theory also relates to probabilistic assumption-based reasoning in information systems and is the basis for the belief functions in the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence.

Formal Theories Of Information

Author: Giovanni Sommaruga
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642006590
Size: 49.76 MB
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It is commonly assumed that computers process information. But what is inf- mation? In a technical, important, but nevertheless rather narrow sense, Sh- non’sinformationtheorygivesa?rstanswertothisquestion.Thistheoryfocuses on measuring the information content of a message. Essentially this measure is the reduction of the uncertainty obtained by receiving a message. The unc- tainty of a situation of ignorance in turn is measured by entropy. This theory hashad an immense impact on the technologyof information storage,data c- pression, information transmission and coding and still is a very active domain of research. Shannon’s theory has also attractedmuch interest in a more philosophic look at information, although it was readily remarked that it is only a “syntactic” theory of information and neglects “semantic” issues. Several attempts have been made in philosophy to give information theory a semantic ?avor, but still mostly based on or at least linked to Shannon’s theory. Approaches to semantic informationtheoryalsoveryoftenmakeuseofformallogic.Thereby,information is linked to reasoning, deduction and inference, as well as to decision making. Further, entropy and related measure were soon found to have important connotations with regard to statistical inference. Surely, statistical data and observation represent information, information about unknown, hidden para- ters. Thus a whole branch of statistics developed around concepts of Shannon’s information theory or derived from them. Also some proper measurements - propriate for statistics, like Fisher’s information, were proposed.

Recent Trends In Algebraic Development Techniques

Author: José Luiz Fiadeiro
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3030232204
Size: 39.91 MB
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 24th IFIP WG 1.3 International Workshop on Algebraic Development Techniques, WADT 2018, held in Egham, UK in July 2018. The 9 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 13 submissions. The contributed presentations covered a range of topics: specification and modelling languages such as CASL, Event-B, Maude, MMT, and SRML; foundations of system specification such as graph transformation, categorical semantics, fuzzy and temporal logics, institutions, module systems and parameterization, refinement, static analysis, and substitutions; and applications including categorical programming, communicating finite state machines, neuralsymbolic integration, relational databases, and service-oriented computing.

Information Flow

Author: Jon Barwise
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521583862
Size: 61.23 MB
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Information is a central topic in computer science, cognitive science, and philosophy. In spite of its importance in the "information age," there is no consensus on what information is, what makes it possible, and what it means for one medium to carry information about another. Drawing on ideas from mathematics, computer science, and philosophy, this book addresses the definition and place of information in society. The authors, observing that information flow is possible only within a connected distribution system, provide a mathematically rigorous, philosophically sound foundation for a science of information. They illustrate their theory by applying it to a wide range of phenomena, from file transfer to DNA, from quantum mechanics to speech act theory.

Logic Programming And Automated Reasoning

Author: Andrei Voronkov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540569442
Size: 60.45 MB
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LPAR is an international conference series aimed at bringing together researchers interested in logic programming and automated reasoning. The research in logic programming grew out of the research in automated reasoning in the early 1970s. Later, the implementation techniques known from logic programming were used in implementing theorem proving systems. Results from both fields applied to deductive databases. This volume contains the proceedings of LPAR '93, which was organized by the Russian Association for Logic Programming. The volume contains 35 contributed papers selected from 84 submissions, together with an invited paper by Peter Wegner entitled "Reasoning versus modeling in computer science".