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Interaction Of Immune And Cancer Cells

Author: Magdalena Klink
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3709113008
Size: 78.22 MB
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The tumor environment is a dynamic network that includes cancer cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, extracellular matrix, cytokines and receptors. The aim of this book is to summarize the role of these components, especially immune cells, in tumor suppression and/or progression and describe in detail why tumor cells can survive and spread in spite of the antitumor response of immune cells. Since immunotherapy is an attractive approach to cancer therapy, this book also provides information on the two main strategies: monoclonal antibodies and adaptive T cell immunotherapy, with a focus on recent human clinical trials. The book provides a state-of-the-art, comprehensive overview of immune cells in cancer and is an indispensable resource for scientists and medical doctors working and/or lecturing in the field of cancer research and immunology. ​

Immune Based Cancer Treatment

Author: Michael A. Alexander
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439861838
Size: 38.29 MB
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The culmination of 30 years of research and experience in T-cell-based cancer, this book highlights and evaluates new treatments that harness the power of the T cell to attack and kill all cancer cells in our bodies. It describes how the T cell immune system can be manipulated and redirected to kill resistant cancer cells by understanding and influencing the interaction of many different immune cells in the body. Citing current experimental trials, it examines the role and pathology of T-cells and suggests additional experimental approaches to the problem.

Innate And Adaptive Immunity In The Tumor Microenvironment

Author: Eitan Yefenof
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 140206750X
Size: 17.68 MB
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Traditionally, the interplay between cancer cells and host immunity has been studied systemically. Recent studies, however, indicate that the tumor microenvironment is unique in providing both supportive and inhibitory factors that determine the fate of the tumor and its host. This volume compiles reviews on innate and adaptive immune responses at the tumor microenvironment with emphasis on positive and negative outcomes that affect the progression of the disease.

Microfluidics In Cell Biologypart A Microfluidics For Multicellular Systems

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128142812
Size: 37.51 MB
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Microfluidics in Cell Biology Part A: Volume 146, the latest release in the Methods in Cell Biology series, continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. Unique to this updated volume are sections on Cell monolayers/spheroids, Collective migration in microtubes, Leukocyte adhesion dynamics on endothelial monolayers under flow, Constrained spheroid for perfusion culture, Cells in droplet arrays, Heart on chips, Kidney on chips, Liver on chips and hepatic immune responses, Gut on chips, 3D microvascular model-based lymphoma model, Blood brain barrier on chips, Multi-organ-on-a-chip for pharmacokinetic analysis, Cancer immunotherapy on chips, and more. Contains contributions from experts in the field from across the globe Covers a wide array of topics on both mitosis and meiosis Includes relevant, analysis based topics

A Survey Of Models For Tumor Immune System Dynamics

Author: John A. Adam
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780817639013
Size: 26.25 MB
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Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA.Research on mathematical modeling and immunology, specifically on modeling tumor dynamics and interactions between tumors and immune system, for biologists and mathematical biologists.

Cancer Immunology And Immunotherapy

Author: Glenn Dranoff
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642141362
Size: 21.13 MB
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The interplay between tumors and their immunologic microenvironment is complex, difficult to decipher, but its understanding is of seminal importance for the development of novel prognostic markers and therapeutic strategies. The present review discusses tumor-immune interactions in several human cancers that illustrate various aspects of this complexity and proposes an integrated scheme of the impact of local immune reactions on clinical outcome. Current active immunotherapy trials have shown durable tumor regressions in a fraction of patients. However, clinical efficacy of current vaccines is limited, possibly because tumors skew the immune system by means of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, inflammatory type 2 T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), all of which prevent the generation of effector cells. To improve the clinical efficacy of cancer vaccines in patients with metastatic disease, we need to design novel and improved strategies that can boost adaptive immunity to cancer, help overcome Tregs and allow the breakdown of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

Analyzing T Cell Responses

Author: Dirk Nagorsen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 140203623X
Size: 70.44 MB
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Active specific immunotherapy is a promising but investigational modality in the management of cancer patients. Currently, several different cancer vaccine formulations such as peptides, proteins, antigen-pulsed dendritic cells, whole tumor cells, etc. in combination with various adjuvants and carriers are being evaluated in clinical trials (1-3). To determine the optimal cancer vaccine strategy, a surrogate immunological end-point that correlates with clinical outcome needs to be defined, since it would facilitate the rapid comparison of these various formulations. Traditional immunological assays such as ELISA, proliferation and cytotoxicity assays can detect immune responses in vaccinated patients but are not quantitative. In contrast, novel assays such as enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, intracellular cytokine assay and tetramer assay can quantitate the frequency of antigen-specific T cells. Of these, the ELISPOT assay has the 5 lowest detection limit with 1/10 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and has been determined to be one of the most useful assays to evaluate immune response to cancer vaccines (4). However, the IFN-? ELISPOT assay is not an exclusive measure of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity as non-cytotoxic cells can also secrete IFN-?. Additionally, CTL with lytic activity do not always secrete IFN-? (5). A more relevant approach to assess functional activity of cytotoxic lymphocytes would be to measure the secretion of molecules that are associated with lytic activity. One of the major mechanisms of cell-mediated cytotoxicity involves exocytosis of cytoplasmic granules from the effector toward the target cell.

Microarray Technology And Cancer Gene Profiling

Author: Simone Mocellin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 038739978X
Size: 72.63 MB
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Given the revolutionary implications that the use of this technology might have in the clinical management of cancer patients, the principles of DNA array-based tumor gene profiling must be clearly understood for the data to be correctly interpreted and appreciated. This book, written by leading experts, discusses the technical features characterizing the powerful laboratory tool of microarray technology, and reviews applications in the field of oncology.

Interaction Of Nanomaterials With The Immune System Role In Nanosafety And Nanomedicine

Author: Paola Italiani
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889453871
Size: 38.58 MB
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The immune system has the double role of maintaining tissue integrity and homeostasis and of protecting the organism from possible dangers, from invading pathogens to environmentally-borne dangerous chemicals. New chemicals recognisable by the immune system are engineered nanomaterials/ nanoparticles, new agents in our environment that are becoming common due to their presence in many products, from constructions and building material (e.g., solar cells, pigments and paints, tilesand masonry materials) to daily products (e.g., food packaging, cosmetics, and cigarettes). Human beings can be accidentally exposed to engineered nanomaterials when these are released from products containing them or during production in workplaces. Furthermore, intentional exposure occurs in medicine, as engineered nanoparticles are used as tools for improving delivery of drugs and vaccines, vaccine adjuvants and contrast agents in therapeutic, preventive and diagnostic strategies. Nanoparticles that come in contact with the immune system after unintentional exposure need to be eliminated from the organism as they represent a potential threat. In this case, however, due to their peculiar characteristics of size, shape, surface charge and persistence, nanoparticles may elicit undesirable reactions and have detrimental effects on the immune system, such as cytotoxicity, inflammation, anaphylaxis, immunosuppression. Conversely, nanomedicines need to escape immune recognition/elimination and must persist in the organism long enough for reaching their target and exerting their beneficial effects. Immune cells and molecules at the body surface (airway and digestive mucosae, skin) are the first that come in contact with nanomaterials upon accidental exposure, while immune effectors in blood are those that more easily come in contact with nanomedical products. Thus, evaluating the interaction of the immune system with nanoparticles/nanomaterials is a topic of key importance both in nanotoxicology and in nanomedicine. Immuno-nanosafety studies consider both accidental exposure to nanoparticles, which may occur by skin contact, ingestion or inhalation (at doses and with a frequency that are not known), and medical exposure, which takes place with a defined administration schedule (route, dose, frequency). Many studies focus on the interaction between the immune system and nanoparticles that, for medical purposes, have been specifically modified to stimulate immunity or to avoid immune recognition, as in the case of vaccine carriers/adjuvants or drug delivery systems, respectively. The aims of this Research Topic is to provide an overview of recent strategies: 1.for assessing the immunosafety of engineered nanomaterials/nanoparticles, in particular in terms of activation of inflammatory responses, such as complement activation and allergic reactions, based on the nanomaterial intrinsic characteristics and on the possible carry-over of bioactive contaminants such as LPS. Production of new nanoparticles taking into account their effects on immune responses, in order to avoid undesirable effects on one hand, and to design particles with desirable effects for medical applications on the other hand; 2.for designing more effective nanomedicines by either avoiding or exploiting their interaction with the immune systems, with particular focus on cancer diagnosis and therapy, and vaccination. This collection of articles gives a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art of the interaction of nanoparticles with the immune system from the two perspectives of safety and medical use, and aims at providing immunologists with the relevant knowledge for designing improved strategies for immunologically safe nanomaterial applications.

Principles Of Molecular Oncology

Author: Miguel H. Bronchud
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1592596649
Size: 21.51 MB
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At the midpoint of the 20th century, our knowledge of cancer was based on epide- ology and pathology, and treatment consisted of surgery and radiation therapy. At mid-century, Medawar and colleagues initiated the understanding of transplantation immunology, Farber described the first use of an antifolic drug to treat leukemia, and Jacobson and coworkers described the irradiation-protection effect of spleen cells. These observations opened the door to the development of chemotherapy and tra- plantation in the treatment of cancer. Despite the rapid development of these new disciplines, progress was usually based on empiric observations and clinical trials. The rapid advances in molecular biology at the end of the 20th century mark a new era in our knowledge of cancer. Molecular immunology, molecular genetics, mole- lar pharmacology, and the Human Genome Project are in the process of providing a level of understanding of cancer undreamed of in the past. Optimism is based on the firm belief that understanding at the molecular level will lead to better and earlier di- nosis, to new forms of treatment, and, most importantly, eventually to prevention of many types of cancer.