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Low Temperature Biology Of Insects

Author: David L. Denlinger
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139485474
Size: 12.17 MB
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Low temperature is a major environmental constraint impacting the geographic distribution and seasonal activity patterns of insects. Written for academic researchers in environmental physiology and entomology, this book explores the physiological and molecular mechanisms that enable insects to cope with a cold environment and places these findings into an evolutionary and ecological context. An introductory chapter provides a primer on insect cold tolerance and subsequent chapters in the first section discuss the organismal, cellular and molecular responses that allow insects to survive in the cold despite their, at best, limited ability to regulate their own body temperature. The second section, highlighting the evolutionary and macrophysiological responses to low temperature, is especially relevant for understanding the impact of global climate change on insect systems. A final section translates the knowledge gained from the rest of the book into practical applications including cryopreservation and the augmentation of pest management strategies.

Insects At Low Temperature

Author: Richard Lee
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 147570190X
Size: 71.13 MB
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The study of insects at low temperature is a comparatively new field. Only recently has insect cryobiology begun to mature, as research moves from a descriptive approach to a search for underlying mechanisms at diverse levels of organization ranging from the gene and cell to ecological and evolutionary relationships. Knowledge of insect responses to low temperature is crucial for understanding the biology of insects living in seasonally varying habitats as well as in polar regions. It is not possible to precisely define low temperature. In the tropics exposure to 10-15°C may induce chill coma or death, whereas some insects in temperate and polar regions remain active and indeed even able to fly at O°C or below. In contrast, for persons interested in cryopreservation, low temperature may mean storage in liquid nitrogen at - 196°C. In the last decade, interest in adaptations of invertebrates to low temperature has risen steadily. In part, this book had its origins in a symposium on this subject that was held at the annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America in Louisville, Kentucky, USA in December, 1988. However, the emergence and growth of this area has also been strongly influenced by an informal group of investigators who met in a series of symposia held in Oslo, Norway in 1982, in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada in 1985 and in Cambridge, England in 1988. Another is scheduled for Binghamton, New York, USA (1990).

Insect Physiology 21st Century Biology And Agriculture Textbook Series

Author: K.P. Sanjayan
Publisher: Scientific Publishers
ISBN: 9387991954
Size: 28.51 MB
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This textbook contains important, comprehensive and in-depth account of all aspects of insect physiology, providing wherever necessary also the fundamental knowledge of the various systems. Although it is aimed as a resource material for postgraduate students of entomology, it would serve as an essential reference source for invertebrate physiologists and neurologists, entomologists, zoologists and insect biochemists. To achieve this goal, extensive references have been made to several textbooks and reviews, to a few research papers dealing with applied aspects of insect physiology and the resources available over the net. The first chapter deals with the anatomical and physiological attributes of the integument conferring insect success with a discussion on the use of the chemical properties of the cuticle to design novel molecules to control insect pests. The chapter also indicates that the structural design of the cuticle could itself be applied in the field of material science to develop hard structures which can withstand the harshness of the environment. Chapter two discusses the diversity in growth and life cycle patterns in insects. Chapters three and six deals with the digestive and excretory systems as potential targets for pest management. Aspects of the circulatory system of insects are presented along with an account on the new frontiers in insect immunity in chapter four. This would appraise the reader on the possible improved use of entomopathogens in biological control, in the discovery of antimicrobial molecules that can be exploited by humans, and of new strategies for management of insect vectors of human and animal disease. While the dynamism of the respiratory system (Chapter five) is presented as a key to their success, the use of the knowledge thus gained in fluid dynamics and biomechanical research is mentioned. An up to date account on the insect nervous system is presented in Chapter seven, together with a note on learning, memory and intelligence in insects. Chapter eight deals with the reproductive system of insects while chapter nine deals with hormones and regulation of metabolism, moulting and diapause. General protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and their energetic are presented in chapter ten along with the physiology of regulation in cold hardiness and flight. Chapter eleven deals with muscular coordination while an in depth account on the sensory physiology and behaviour is presented in chapter twelve.

Insect Molecular Biology And Ecology

Author: Klaus H. Hoffmann
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482231891
Size: 14.58 MB
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Insects represent the most abundant and diverse animal group on Earth. The number of described species is more than one million and up to ten million are estimated. Insects have one of the widest distributions in the world because they have adapted to extreme ranges of environments. Molecular ecology studies ecological processes based on the analysis of biomacromolecules, particularly DNA, RNA, and proteins, but also of low-molecular weight signal compounds. Molecular ecology uses the exciting opportunities offered by the tools of molecular biology. The book presents current entomological research, where molecular tools help to advance traditional ecological studies. Chapters include ones on insect–insect and insect–plant interactions, on mechanisms of environmental adaptation, or on the use of insect biotechnology in pest and vector control. The book helps to combine powerful methods in molecular biology with exciting issues in ecology to understand why insects became "masters of survival."

Short Views On Insect Genomics And Proteomics

Author: Chandrasekar Raman
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331924244X
Size: 67.99 MB
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Entomology is a super science, embracing interdisciplinary approaches in genomics, proteomics, and interdependent fields of biochemistry, physiology, molecular entomology, and biotechnology. An urgent need to manage available resources for the benefit of the planet and humankind has led to remarkable progress since publication of the fruit fly genome in 2000. “Short Views on Insect Genomics and Proteomics” presents multiple perspectives of recognized experts from around the world in genomics, bioinformatics, molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, and immunology, emphasizing fast-moving areas of current research on insects and other arthropods. Concise, accessible, topical reviews include body lice and white fly genome projects, aphid phenotypic plasticity, insect regulatory genomics, the complex tick sialome, protein expression systems, therapeutic potential of insect antimicrobial peptides, nanoparticle insecticides, and novel uses for recombinant and synthetic spider silks.

Low Temperature Biology Of Foodstuffs

Author: John Hawthorn
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483154629
Size: 55.14 MB
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Low Temperature Biology of Foodstuffs describes the concept of low temperature biology and its application in the food industry. This book is divided into 23 chapters and begins with descriptions of several low temperature processes, such as nucleation, ice crystal growth, and freezing. The succeeding chapters deal with the protective mechanisms in frost-hardy plants, the physico-chemical changes in foods during freezing and storage, and the influence of cold storage, freezing, and thawing microbial and population of several foodstuffs. These topics are followed by discussions of the principles of freezing and low-temperature storage of fruit and vegetables. Other chapters explore the process of gelation, the freezing and frozen storage of fish muscle and meat. The final chapters look into the subjective evaluations of frozen food quality, including their physico-chemical properties. This book will prove useful to food scientists and manufacturers.

Biology Of Blood Sucking Insects

Author: Mike Lehane
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401179530
Size: 72.28 MB
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Blood-sucking insects are the vectors of many of the most debilitating parasites of man and his domesticated animals. In addition they are of considerable direct cost to the agricultural industry through losses in milk and meat yields, and through damage to hides and wool, etc. So, not surprisingly, many books of medical and veterinary entomology have been written. Most of these texts are organized taxonomically giving the details of the life-cycles, bionomics, relationship to disease and economic importance of each of the insect groups in turn. I have taken a different approach. This book is topic led and aims to discuss the biological themes which are common in the lives of blood-sucking insects. To do this I have concentrated on those aspects of the biology of these fascinating insects which have been clearly modified in some way to suit the blood-sucking habit. For example, I have discussed feeding and digestion in some detail because feeding on blood presents insects with special problems, but I have not discussed respiration because it is not affected in any particular way by haematophagy. Naturally there is a subjective element in the choice of topics for discussion and the weight given to each. I hope that I have not let my enthusiasm for particular subjects get the better of me on too many occasions and that the subject material achieves an overall balance.

The Biology Of Blood Sucking In Insects

Author: M. J. Lehane
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521543958
Size: 39.21 MB
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Blood-sucking insects transmit many of the most debilitating diseases to man including malaria, sleeping sickness, filariasis, dengue, typhus and plague. Additionally these insects cause major economic losses in agriculture by direct damage to livestock. This new edition of The Biology of Blood-Sucking in Insects has been fully updated since it was first published in 1991. It provides a unique, topic-led commentary on the biological aspects that are common to blood-sucking insects. This account focuses on the biological adaptations that clearly suit the blood-sucking habit and further discusses host–insect interactions and the transmission of parasites by blood-sucking insects. It also outlines the medical, social and economic impact of blood-sucking insects. The final chapter is designed as a useful quick-reference section. Written in a clear, concise fashion and well illustrated throughout, the text will be of direct interest to advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students of medical and veterinary entomology and parasitology.

Cryopreservation And Low Temperature Biology In Blood Transfusion

Author: C.Th. Smit Sibinga
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461315158
Size: 40.96 MB
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The theme of this 14th International Symposium on Blood Transfusion is closely related to the work and scientific contributions of the Dutch cryobiology pioneer Dr. Herman W. Krijnen of the Dutch Red Cross Central Laboratory. Dr. Krijnen was known and respected in the national and interna tional blood transfusion community as an extremely competent scientist and a beloved and admired colleague. Dr. Krijnen was intentionally honoured with the invitation to open this symposium on cryopreservation and low temperature biology in blood transfusion and be the guest of honour at this event. Unfortunately, Dr. Krijnen suddenly died on the first of June 1989. In honour and mem ory of Dr. Krijnen this symposium will therefore be dedicated to him. Since the lOth International Symposium on Blood Transfusion in 1985 highlighted the theme of "Future developments in blood banking", major changes have occurred in the blood banking world. Most of these changes were forced upon the Blood Banks by the fear of spreading AIDS through contaminated donations. This not only led to the wide spread testing of blood, but also to a more appropriate counselling of the community and the blood donors in specific. Additionally, virus inacti vation techniques were introduced for those components derived from multiple donations and intended for a regular transfusion in haemophi lia patients and others.