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Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel

Author: Tom LaTourrette
Publisher: RAND Corporation
ISBN: 9780833051080
Size: 61.91 MB
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Increasing awareness of the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has renewed interest in nuclear power generation. At the same time, the longstanding logjam over how to manage spent nuclear fuel continues to hamper the expansion of nuclear power. If nuclear power is to be a sustainable option for the United States, methods for managing spent fuel that meet stringent safety and environmental standards must be implemented. This monograph evaluates the main technical and institutional approaches to spent nuclear fuel management and identifies implications for the development of spent fuel management policy. The authors find that on-site storage, centralized interim storage, and permanent geological disposal are generally safe, secure, and low- to moderate-cost approaches with no insurmountable technical obstacles. Advanced fuel cycles enabling spent-fuel recycling could reduce waste repository capacity needs but are difficult to evaluate because they still in early research stages. Public acceptance challenges stand as a major impediment to any technical approach. The analysis shows that the technical approaches can be combined in different ways to form different spent fuel management strategies that can be distinguished primarily in terms of societal preferences in three areas: the disposition of spent fuel, the growth of nuclear power, and intergenerational trade-offs.

Alternative Energy In The Middle East

Author: G. Bahgat
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137264586
Size: 19.11 MB
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Gawdat Bahgat examines alternative energy (renewable and nuclear) in the Middle East. These largely under-utilized resources represent tremendous economic and environmental opportunities.

Managing The Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Author: Mary Beth Dunham Nikitin
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1437923232
Size: 55.23 MB
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Contents: (1) Introduction; (2) Renewed Interest in Nuclear Power Expansion: (a) Worldwide Nuclear Power Status; (b) Nuclear Fuel Services Market: Yellowcake; Conversion; Enrichment; Fuel Fabrication; (c) Final Stages of the Fuel Cycle; (d) Waste Disposal and Energy Security; (3) Proposals on the Fuel Cycle: Pres. Bush¿s '04 Proposal; Discussions in the Nuclear Suppliers Group; El Baradei Proposal; IAEA Experts Group/INFCIRC/640; Putin Initiative; Six Country Concept; IAEA Fuel Bank; Congress. Support; World Nuclear Assoc.; IAEA Standby Arrange. System; Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary Project; Enrichment Bonds; Global Nuclear Energy Partnership; (4) Comparison of Proposals; (5) Prospects for Implementing Fuel Assurance Mechanisms.

The Energy And Security Nexus

Author: Carolyn Wilson Pumphrey
Publisher: Strategic Studies Institute U. S. Army War College
ISBN:
Size: 13.83 MB
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The relationship between energy and security has been receiving increasing attention over the last few years. Energy literally drives the global economy. Societies rely on it for everything from advanced medical equipment to heating, cooling, and irrigation. Whether it derives from advanced nuclear reactors in developed nations or simple wood stoves in the developing world, energy is recognized as vital to human welfare. It influences our economic, political, and social policies. Possessing or not possessing sufficient energy determines a state's political and economic power. Competition for energy has been, is, and will be a source of conflict. The choices nation-states make when it comes to energy will have a profound bearing on a wide range of security concerns, from nuclear proliferation to climate change.

Strategy

Author: Great Britain: Nuclear Decommissioning Authority
Publisher: The Stationery Office
ISBN: 9780108510472
Size: 74.62 MB
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The Energy Act 2004 requires the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), a non-Departmental body, to review and publish its strategy at least every five years. This document also presents the outcome of the NDA's review of the first Strategy published in 2006. This revised Strategy sets out the NDA's strategic direction and mission. The core objective of the NDA is to ensure that the historic civil public sector nuclear legacy sites are decommissioned safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways that protect the environment. As part of this, the NDA is required to operate existing commercial activities and meet current contracts, using revenues generated to offset spend on decommissioning. Much of the original strategy therefore remains the same but the UK Government policy on nuclear energy has changed and a new reactor programme is now envisaged for England and Wales. The decommissioning programme itself has an estimated cost of £45.1 billion. The Strategy can be divided into the following groups: (1) Site restoration - which defines the approach to decommissioning redundant facilities and management of contamination; (2) Spent fuels - which is managing the diverse spent nuclear fuels; (3) Nuclear materials - consists of dealing with the inventory of uranics and plutonium, stored at some site; (4) Integrated Waste Management - concerns the management of all forms of waste arising from operating and decommissioning sites; (5) Business Organisation - looks at maximising commercial income, using assets and capabilities to reduce decommissioning costs; (6) Critical Enablers - seeks to support the NDA's overall mission. The publication is divided into five chapters focusing on these issues, with appendices. The Strategy is effective from April 2011.