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More Work For Mother

Author: Ruth Schwartz Cowan
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 9780465047321
Size: 62.13 MB
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In this classic work of women's history (winner of the 1984 Dexter Prize from the Society for the History of Technology), Ruth Schwartz Cowan shows how and why modern women devote as much time to housework as did their colonial sisters. In lively and provocative prose, Cowan explains how the modern conveniences—washing machines, white flour, vacuums, commercial cotton—seemed at first to offer working-class women middle-class standards of comfort. Over time, however, it became clear that these gadgets and gizmos mainly replaced work previously conducted by men, children, and servants. Instead of living lives of leisure, middle-class women found themselves struggling to keep up with ever higher standards of cleanliness.

More Work For Mother

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Environmental chemicals (e.g., lead, pesticides, flame retardants) accumulate in all human bodies and have the potential to affect the health of men and women, adults, and children. This article advances "precautionary consumption"—the effort to mediate personal exposure to environmental chemicals through vigilant consumption—as a new empirical site for understanding the intersections between maternal embodiment and contemporary motherhood as a consumer project. Using in-depth interviews, I explore how a group of 25 mothers employ precautionary consumption to mediate their children's exposure to chemicals found in food, consumer products, and the home. Most of the mothers in the study situate their children's chemical "burdens" within their own bodies and undertake the labor of precautionary consumption as part of a larger and commodity-based motherhood project. In actively expanding the sphere of responsible motherhood to include managing children's body burdens, these mothers navigate multiple and overlapping contexts that hold women accountable for children's futures and value the agency of the proactive consumer. Yet, as the sphere of responsible mothering expands, women without financial resources, time, and family stability are pushed to the margins of normative motherhood.

Century Of The Leisured Masses

Author: David George Surdam
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0190211571
Size: 43.86 MB
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American living standards improved considerably between 1900 and 2000. While most observers focus on gains in per-capita income as a measure of economic well-being, economists have used other measures of well-being: height, weight, and longevity. The increased amount of leisure time per week and across people's lifetimes, however, has been an unsung aspect of the improved standard of living in America. In Century of the Leisured Masses, David George Surdam explores the growing presence of leisure activities in Americans' lives and how this development came out throughout the twentieth century. Most Americans have gone from working fifty-five or more hours per week to working fewer than forty, although many Americans at the top rungs of the economic ladder continue to work long hours. Not only do more Americans have more time to devote to other activities, they are able to enjoy higher-quality leisure. New forms of leisure have given Americans more choices, better quality, and greater convenience. For instance, in addition to producing music themselves, they can now listen to the most talented musicians when and where they want. Television began as black and white on small screens; within fifty years, Americans had a cast of dozens of channels to choose from. They could also purchase favorite shows and movies to watch at their convenience. Even Americans with low incomes enjoyed television and other new forms of leisure. This growth of leisure resulted from a combination of growing productivity, better health, and technology. American workers became more productive and chose to spend their improved productivity and higher wages by consuming more, taking more time off, and enjoying better working conditions. By century's end, relatively few Americans were engaged in arduous, dangerous, and stultifying occupations. The reign of tyranny on the shop floor, in retail shops, and in offices was mitigated; many Americans could even enjoy leisure activities during work hours. Failure to consider the gains in leisure time and leisure consumption understates the gains in American living standards. With Century of the Leisured Masses, Surdam has comprehensively documented and examined the developments in this important marker of well-being throughout the past century.

The Redemption Of Love

Author: Carrie A. Miles
Publisher: Brazos Press
ISBN: 1587431505
Size: 45.33 MB
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Biblical answers to issues of love, sex, marriage, and family within the growing economic study of religion.

Making Ends Meet

Author: Charlotte van de Vorst
Publisher: Univ. of Manitoba Press
ISBN: 0887553400
Size: 75.26 MB
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Based on hundreds of interviews with Manitoba farm men and women, Making Ends Meet reconstructs the common history shared by modern farm women as well as by their mothers and grandmothers. It explores women's changing roles on the farm, from the early days of the Red River settlement to the twentieth-century farm community. The women's own stories reveal their ingenuity and tenacity in "making ends meet" through economies, shared, labour, and generation of new resource income as varied as raising poultry and custom woodworking. These stories prove that the contributions of farm women have been vital in establishing and maintaining the family farm, and are critical to its continued survival.

Migration Familie Und Soziale Lage

Author: Thomas Geisen
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3531941275
Size: 64.66 MB
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Das Thema „Migration und Familie" findet seit einigen Jahren verstärkt Beachtung. Dies geschieht meist im Zusammenhang mit der Thematisierung von Problemen und Defiziten, insbesondere in den Bereichen Bildung und Erziehung, sowie in Bezug auf das Geschlechterverhältnis. In anderer Weise erfolgt diese Thematisierung im Care-Bereich: Während einerseits Familien bei der Betreuung und Pflege von Angehörigen zunehmend auf die Arbeit von Migrant/innen angewiesen sind, wird anderseits gerade diese Konstellation zur Belastungen für die Familien der Migrant/innen. Die Beiträge des Bandes greifen die Vielfalt und Widersprüchlichkeit familialer Praxen im Kontext von Migration auf und liefern differenzierte Analysen zu aktuellen Fragen von Bildung, Gender und Care.

Unprotected Labor

Author: Vanessa H. May
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 0807877905
Size: 23.87 MB
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Through an analysis of women's reform, domestic worker activism, and cultural values attached to public and private space, Vanessa May explains how and why domestic workers, the largest category of working women before 1940, were excluded from labor protections that formed the foundation of the welfare state. Looking at the debate over domestic service from both sides of the class divide, Unprotected Labor assesses middle-class women's reform programs as well as household workers' efforts to determine their own working conditions. May argues that working-class women sought to define the middle-class home as a workplace even as employers and reformers regarded the home as private space. The result was that labor reformers left domestic workers out of labor protections that covered other women workers in New York between the late nineteenth century and the New Deal. By recovering the history of domestic workers as activists in the debate over labor legislation, May challenges depictions of domestics as passive workers and reformers as selfless advocates of working women. Unprotected Labor illuminates how the domestic-service debate turned the middle-class home inside out, making private problems public and bringing concerns like labor conflict and government regulation into the middle-class home.

Surviving Technopolis

Author: Arthur W. Hunt
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
ISBN: 1621899217
Size: 41.93 MB
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Technopolis has no end in view other than bigger, faster, newer, and more. While giving us many material benefits--at least in the short run--in its wake are spiritual loss, alienation, and devastation. These essays not only evaluate Technopolis, but also seek wisdom to cope with our new human-made environments. Positively stated, they offer suggestions on how to bring us back into balance. Some of our best wisdom in analyzing Technopolis can be found in the voices of the Christian humanists. Unlike Enlightenment humanism, which tends to be human-centered, Christian humanism is concerned with the role of humankind within God's created order. G. K. Chesterton, T. S. Eliot, J. R. R. Tolkien, and C. S. Lewis represent this tradition. They, and others like them, understood that technological progress with no clear telos obscures what Eliot called the permanent things. Surviving Technopolis means restoring the things closest to us--those old identity-forming institutions of home, church, and community.

Refrigeration Nation

Author: Jonathan Rees
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421411075
Size: 58.63 MB
Format: PDF
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Only when the power goes off and food spoils do we truly appreciate how much we rely on refrigerators and freezers. In Refrigeration Nation, Jonathan Rees explores the innovative methods and gadgets that Americans have invented to keep perishable food cold—from cutting river and lake ice and shipping it to consumers for use in their iceboxes to the development of electrically powered equipment that ushered in a new age of convenience and health. As much a history of successful business practices as a history of technology, this book illustrates how refrigeration has changed the everyday lives of Americans and why it remains so important today. Beginning with the natural ice industry in 1806, Rees considers a variety of factors that drove the industry, including the point and product of consumption, issues of transportation, and technological advances. Rees also shows that how we obtain and preserve perishable food is related to our changing relationship with the natural world.

The Oxford Handbook Of The History Of Consumption

Author: Frank Trentmann
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191624357
Size: 75.36 MB
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The term 'consumption' covers the desire for goods and services, their acquisition, use, and disposal. The study of consumption has grown enormously in recent years, and it has been the subject of major historiographical debates: did the eighteenth century bring a consumer revolution? Was there a great divergence between East and West? Did the twentieth century see the triumph of global consumerism? Questions of consumption have become defining topics in all branches of history, from gender and labour history to political history and cultural studies. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Consumption offers a timely overview of how our understanding of consumption in history has changed in the last generation, taking the reader from the ancient period to the twenty-first century. It includes chapters on Asia, Europe, Africa, and North America, brings together new perspectives, highlights cutting-edge areas of research, and offers a guide through the main historiographical developments. Contributions from leading historians examine the spaces of consumption, consumer politics, luxury and waste, nationalism and empire, the body, well-being, youth cultures, and fashion. The Handbook also showcases the different ways in which recent historians have approached the subject, from cultural and economic history to political history and technology studies, including areas where multidisciplinary approaches have been especially fruitful.