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Nature Of Science In General Chemistry Textbooks

Author: Mansoor Niaz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400719200
Size: 46.57 MB
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Research in science education has recognized the importance of history and philosophy of science (HPS). Nature of science (NOS) is considered to be an essential part of HPS with important implications for teaching science. The role played by textbooks in developing students’ informed conceptions of NOS has been a source of considerable interest for science educators. In some parts of the world, textbooks become the curriculum and determine to a great extent what is taught and learned in the classroom. Given this background and interest, this monograph has evaluated NOS in university level general chemistry textbooks published in U.S.A. Most textbooks in this study provided little insight with respect to the nine criteria used for evaluating NOS. Some of the textbooks, however, inevitably refer to HPS and thus provide guidelines for future textbooks. A few of the textbooks go into considerable detail to present the atomic models of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr and wave mechanical to illustrate the tentative nature of scientific theories --- an important NOS aspect. These results lead to the question: Are we teaching science as practiced by scientists? An answer to this question can help us to understand the importance of NOS, by providing students an HPS-based environment, so that they too (just like the scientists) feel the thrill and excitement of discovering new things. This monograph provides students and teachers guidelines for introducing various aspects of NOS, based on historical episodes.

From Science In The Making To Understanding The Nature Of Science

Author: Mansoor Niaz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136508651
Size: 64.47 MB
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The Nature of Science is highly topical among science teacher educators and researchers. Increasingly, it is a mandated topic in state curriculum documents. This book draws together recent research on Nature of Science studies within a historical and philosophical framework suitable for students and teacher educators. Traditional science curricula and textbooks present science as a finished product. Taking a different approach, this book provides a glimpse of “science in the making” — scientific practice imbued with arguments, controversies, and competition among rival theories and explanations. Teaching about “science in the making” is a rich source of motivating students to engage creatively with the science curriculum. Readers are introduced to “science in the making” through discussion and analysis of a wide range of historical episodes from the early 19th century to early 21st century. Recent cutting-edge research is presented to provide insight into the dynamics of scientific progress. More than 90 studies from major science education journals, related to nature of science are reviewed. A theoretical framework, field tested with in-service science teachers, is developed for moving from ‘science in the making’ to understanding the Nature of Science.

International Handbook Of Research In History Philosophy And Science Teaching

Author: Michael R. Matthews
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400776543
Size: 24.12 MB
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This inaugural handbook documents the distinctive research field that utilizes history and philosophy in investigation of theoretical, curricular and pedagogical issues in the teaching of science and mathematics. It is contributed to by 130 researchers from 30 countries; it provides a logically structured, fully referenced guide to the ways in which science and mathematics education is, informed by the history and philosophy of these disciplines, as well as by the philosophy of education more generally. The first handbook to cover the field, it lays down a much-needed marker of progress to date and provides a platform for informed and coherent future analysis and research of the subject. The publication comes at a time of heightened worldwide concern over the standard of science and mathematics education, attended by fierce debate over how best to reform curricula and enliven student engagement in the subjects. There is a growing recognition among educators and policy makers that the learning of science must dovetail with learning about science; this handbook is uniquely positioned as a locus for the discussion. The handbook features sections on pedagogical, theoretical, national, and biographical research, setting the literature of each tradition in its historical context. It reminds readers at a crucial juncture that there has been a long and rich tradition of historical and philosophical engagements with science and mathematics teaching, and that lessons can be learnt from these engagements for the resolution of current theoretical, curricular and pedagogical questions that face teachers and administrators. Science educators will be grateful for this unique, encyclopaedic handbook, Gerald Holton, Physics Department, Harvard University This handbook gathers the fruits of over thirty years’ research by a growing international and cosmopolitan community Fabio Bevilacqua, Physics Department, University of Pavia

Evolving Nature Of Objectivity In The History Of Science And Its Implications For Science Education

Author: Mansoor Niaz
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319677268
Size: 26.83 MB
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This book explores the evolving nature of objectivity in the history of science and its implications for science education. It is generally considered that objectivity, certainty, truth, universality, the scientific method and the accumulation of experimental data characterize both science and science education. Such universal values associated with science may be challenged while studying controversies in their original historical context. The scientific enterprise is not characterized by objectivity or the scientific method, but rather controversies, alternative interpretations of data, ambiguity, and uncertainty. Although objectivity is not synonymous with truth or certainty, it has eclipsed other epistemic virtues and to be objective is often used as a synonym for scientific. Recent scholarship in history and philosophy of science has shown that it is not the experimental data (Baconian orgy of quantification) but rather the diversity / plurality in a scientific discipline that contributes toward understanding objectivity. History of science shows that objectivity and subjectivity can be considered as the two poles of a continuum and this dualism leads to a conflict in understanding the evolving nature of objectivity. The history of objectivity is nothing less than the history of science itself and the evolving and varying forms of objectivity does not mean that one replaced the other in a sequence but rather each form supplements the others. This book is remarkable for its insistence that the philosophy of science, and in particular that discipline’s analysis of objectivity as the supposed hallmark of the scientific method, is of direct value to teachers of science. Meticulously, yet in a most readable way, Mansoor Niaz looks at the way objectivity has been dealt with over the years in influential educational journals and in textbooks; it’s fascinating how certain perspectives fade, while basic questions show no sign of going away. There are few books that take both philosophy and education seriously – this one does! Roald Hoffmann, Cornell University, chemist, writer and Nobel Laureate in Chemistry

Reconstruction Of Wave Particle Duality And Its Implications For General Chemistry Textbooks

Author: Mansoor Niaz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400743963
Size: 22.89 MB
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It goes without saying that atomic structure, including its dual wave-particle nature, cannot be demonstrated in the classroom. Thus, for most science teachers, especially those in physics and chemistry, the textbook is their key resource and their students’ core source of information. Science education historiography recognizes the role played by the history and philosophy of science in developing the content of our textbooks, and with this in mind, the authors analyze more than 120 general chemistry textbooks published in the USA, based on criteria derived from a historical reconstruction of wave-particle duality. They come to some revealing conclusions, including the fact that very few textbooks discussed issues such as the suggestion, by both Einstein and de Broglie, and before conclusive experimental evidence was available, that wave-particle duality existed. Other large-scale omissions included de Broglie’s prescription for observing this duality, and the importance of the Davisson-Germer experiments, as well as the struggle to interpret the experimental data they were collecting. Also untouched was the background to the role played by Schrödinger in developing de Broglie’s ideas. The authors argue that rectifying these deficiencies will arouse students’ curiosity by giving them the opportunity to engage creatively with the content of science curricula. They also assert that it isn’t just the experimental data in science that matters, but the theoretical insights and unwonted inspirations, too. In addition, the controversies and discrepancies in the theoretical and experimental record are key drivers in understanding the development of science as we know it today.

L Szl Zechmeister

Author: Michaela Wirth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319006428
Size: 30.58 MB
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Lázlo Zechmeister was one of the pioneers in chromatology. He recognized the potential of the chromatographic method and made extensive use of it for his research about natural products. In 1938 he founded the book series "Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products" which includes review articles on contemporary research by masters in their fields of expertise. This text casts light on his life and his pioneering role in chromatography and provides more detailed insight on the book series.

Simulations As Scaffolds In Science Education

Author: Maggie Renken
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319246151
Size: 77.75 MB
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This book outlines key issues for addressing the grand challenges posed to educators, developers, and researchers interested in the intersection of simulations and science education. To achieve this, the authors explore the use of computer simulations as instructional scaffolds that provide strategies and support when students are faced with the need to acquire new skills or knowledge. The monograph aims to provide insight into what research has reported on navigating the complex process of inquiry- and problem-based science education and whether computer simulations as instructional scaffolds support specific aims of such pedagogical approaches for students.

Haloalkyne Chemistry

Author: Huanfeng Jiang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662490013
Size: 27.33 MB
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This book presents efficient and practical methods for the synthesis of various functionalized organic molecules from haloalkynes through different reaction processes such as cross-coupling reactions, nucleophilic additions and cycloadditions. It consists of four chapters demonstrating interesting examples of these transformations, and showcasing the synthetic power of haloalkynes for rapid assembly of complex molecular structures. Most of the protocols allow multiple bond-forming events to occur in a single operation, offering opportunities to advance chemical synthesis and address the increasing demands for green and sustainable chemistry. It also presents a wide range of functionalized products, including many synthetically useful conjugated cyclic and acyclic structures that have potential applications in materials science, chemical biology and natural product synthesis. This book is a valuable reference not only for organic chemists, but also for biologists and materials scientists involved in the modern synthesis of organic compounds and materials. Huanfeng Jiang and Wanqing Wu are both Professors at the School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, China. Chuanle Zhu is a Postdoctoral Fellow at the School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, China.

Early Russian Organic Chemists And Their Legacy

Author: David E. Lewis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642282180
Size: 20.12 MB
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The organic chemists of Russia during the pre-revolutionary period included some of the most creative and talented chemists of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Indeed, this is attested by the number of reactions and empirical rules bearing their names. This volume is of interest for both historians of chemistry and organic chemists wishing to discover more about the historical development of their discipline in Russia. From the founding of the Russian Academy of Sciences by Peter the Great in 1725 to the early years of the nineteenth century, Russian organic chemistry was largely in the hands of foreign scientists. However, the Russification of organic chemistry in Russia had begun before the middle of the nineteenth century, and reached its zenith during the last half of the same century, by which time vibrant schools of chemistry had arisen in the eastern city of Kazan', at Moscow and at St. Petersburg. By the end of the century, the Chairs of organic chemistry at universities throughout the Russian empire were occupied by Russian chemists, almost half of them trained at Kazan'. This volume discusses the contributions of these organic chemists which include: the structural theory of organic chemistry, empirical rules for addition and elimination, reactions involving carbon nucleophiles, such as the aldol reaction and alcohol synthesis using organozinc nucleophiles, the discovery of sulfoxides and sulfonium salts, and a range of important redox reactions.

Clay Materials For Environmental Remediation

Author: Suryadi Ismadji
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331916712X
Size: 75.34 MB
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A comprehensive review of environmental remediation is presented with an emphasis on the role of clay minerals in water purification. In the first chapter, important aspects of environmental problems and possible solutions are discussed. In the second chapter, the application of natural clay minerals as environmental cleaning agents are explained. The discussion is focused on the role of different types of clay materials in hazardous substance removal from air, aqueous solutions, wastewater, aquaculture, ground water, etc. In the next chapter, the modification of clay materials is explored including the preparation of clay composite materials for environmental remediation. Various aspects of clay material modifications and the effects of clay surface chemistry on the removal of hazardous material is also discussed. Next, the equilibrium and kinetics of hazardous substance adsorption is presented. This chapter summarizes recent studies on the removal of hazardous substances from aqueous solutions and the environment using various types of clay minerals. The brief also includes various models used in adsorption studies and touches on the characterization of clay minerals.