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Placebo And Pain

Author: Luana Colloca
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123979315
Size: 65.23 MB
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The placebo effect continues to fascinate scientists, scholars, and clinicians, resulting in an impressive amount of research, mainly in the field of pain. While recent experimental and clinical studies have unraveled salient aspects of the neurobiological substrates and clinical relevance of pain and placebo analgesia, an authoritative source remained lacking until now. By presenting and integrating a broad range of research, Placebo and Pain enhances readers’ knowledge about placebo and nocebo effects, reexamines the methodology of clinical trials, and improves the therapeutic approaches for patients suffering from pain. Review for Placebo and Pain: “This ambitious book is the first comprehensive and unified presentation of the placebo and nocebo phenomena in the area of pain. Written by the international leading experts in the field, the book provides an accurate up-to-date [work] on placebo and pain dealing with current perspectives and future challenging issues. --Ted Kaptchuk, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Contains historical aspects of the placebo effect Discusses biological and psychological mechanisms of placebo analgesic responses Reviews implications of the placebo effect for clinical research and pain management Includes methodological and ethical aspects of the placebo effect

Placebo And Pain

Author: Paul Enck
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128064234
Size: 44.96 MB
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Different methods have been developed over the last 50 years of placebo-interested research to identify, characterize and modulate the placebo response in individuals, but also to minimize it in randomized controled trials (RCTs). Among the design features that manipulate information, the balanced placebo design (BPD) and the balanced cross-over design (BCD) are not applicable to patients without authorized deception. Manipulating the timing of the drug, such as in the ‘hidden treatment’ paradigm and the delayed response test (DRT), may be more acceptable but is still limited to experimental settings. In RCTs, ‘active placebos’ and sham controls for non-drug therapy are feasible but are difficult to develop, and their effectiveness in blinding is yet to be evaluated. Waiting list (WL), ‘no-treatment’ controls and treatment-as-usual (TAU) are inappropriate control strategies unless combined with novel approaches such as the Zelen design.

Neuroscience Of Pain Stress And Emotion

Author: Magne Arve Flaten
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128006668
Size: 26.84 MB
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Neuroscience of Pain, Stress, and Emotion: Psychological and Clinical Implications presents updated research on stress, pain, and emotion, all key research areas within both basic and clinical neuroscience. Improved research understanding of their interaction is ultimately necessary if clinicians and those working in the field of psychosomatic medicine are to alleviate patient suffering. This volume offers broad coverage of that interaction, with chapters written by major researchers in the field. After reviewing the neuroscience of pain and stress, the contents go on to address the interaction between stress and chronic/acute pain, the role of different emotions in pain, neurobiological mechanisms mediating these various interactions, individual differences in both stress and pain, the role of patient expectations during treatment (placebo and nocebo responses), and how those relate to stress modulation. While there are books on the market which discuss pain, stress, and emotion separately, this volume is the first to tackle their nexus, thus appealing to both researchers and clinicians. Represents the only comprehensive reference detailing the link between pain, stress and emotion, covering the neuroscientific underpinnings, related psychological processes, and clinical implications Compiles, in one place, research which promises to improve the methodology of clinical trials and the use of knowledge of pain-stress-emotion effects in order to reduce patients’ suffering Provides comprehensive chapters authored by global leaders in the field, the broadest, most expert coverage available

Botanical Medicine From Bench To Bedside Cooper Kronenberg

Author: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc-Publishers
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
Size: 49.70 MB
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CONCLUSIONS The challenges presented in this chapter are very real and complicated by a chaotic marketplace and often disor ga nized research agenda. As revealed throughout history and confi rmed through contemporary research, plants have played an important role in women’s health. However, there remains much work to be done “from bench to bedside.” It is important to identify which botanicals are most effi cacious for a given condition as well as how they compare with conventional treatments in terms of safety, effectiveness, and cost. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies are essential as well as research on safety during pregnancy and lactation. Chaste tree appears to be a viable and safe approach for PMS, especially for women who choose not to take oral contraceptives and for whom lifestyle changes are not enough. Chaste tree may have the potential to address certain types of female infertility, which could be very cost effective if proven clinically effective. For PMS and infertility, the herb will be taken by women of reproductive age— so the question of safety in pregnancy is an extremely important one. If chaste tree can correct latent hyperprolactinemia, this would mean a safer and more tolerable treatment for many women. But before this can be studied, dose- ranging studies in women specifi cally looking at prolactin levels are imperative. And basic science is needed to determine what constituent(s), if any, should be considered for standardization based upon the condition being treated. There is defi nitely a need for more rigorous and creative research in the area of botanicals and women’s health. The researcher studies the effi cacy and mechanism of a given therapy so that broad numbers of patients may potentially benefi t from the treatment. Clinicians working in the fi eld of women’s health are keenly aware that treatments must often be tailored to meet the individual needs of the woman and that there is often not one simple answer. Clinicians and researchers could benefi t greatly from more extensive dialogue with each other— so that each can share their unique experiences and worldviews, learning from each other to improve both research and clinical care. For in spite of the lack of rigorous research for many botanicals, it is highly likely that many women will continue to seek out these therapies as a means of self- treatment and self- care. REFERENCES 1Upchurch DM, Chyu L, Greendale GA, Utts J, Bair YA, Zhang G, Gold EB. Complementary and alternative medicine use among American women: fi ndings from the National Health Interview Survey, 2002. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2007;16:102– 113. 2Vickers K, Jolly KB, Greenfi eld SM. Herbal medicine: women’s views, knowledge and interaction with doctors: a qualitative study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006;6:40. 3American College of Obstetrics and Gynecol ogy: Committee opinion. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1995:50:80. 4Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J, eds. Herbal Medicine. Expanded Commission E Monographs. Integrative Medicine, Communications. 1st ed. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000. 5Webster DE, Lu J, Chen SN, Farnsworth NR, Wang ZJ. Activation of the mu- opiate receptor by Vitex agnus- castus methanol extracts: implication for its use in PMS. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jun 30;106(2): 216– 221.

Pain Assessment And Pharmacologic Management E Book

Author: Chris Pasero
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323082637
Size: 38.22 MB
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Pain Assessment and Pharmacologic Management, by highly renowned authors Chris Pasero and Margo McCaffery, is destined to become the definitive resource in pain management in adults. It provides numerous reproducible tables, boxes, and figures that can be used in clinical practice, and emphasizes the benefits of a multimodal analgesic approach throughout. In addition, Patient Medication Information forms for the most commonly used medications in each analgesic group can be copied and given to patients. This title is an excellent resource for nurses to become certified in pain management. Presents best practices and evidence-based guidelines for assessing and managing pain most effectively with the latest medications and drug regimens. Features detailed, step-by-step guidance on effective pain assessment to help nurses appropriately evaluate pain for each patient during routine assessments. Provides reproducible tables, boxes, and figures that can be used in clinical practice. Contains Patient Medication Information forms for the most commonly used medications in each analgesic group, to be copied and given to patients. Offers the authors' world-renowned expertise in five sections: Underlying Mechanisms of Pain and the Pathophysiology of Neuropathic Pain includes figures that clearly illustrate nociception and classification of pain by inferred pathology. Assessment includes tools to assess patients who can report their pain as well as those who are nonverbal, such as the cognitively impaired and critically ill patients. Several pain-rating scales are translated in over 20 languages. Nonnopioids includes indications for using acetaminophen or NSAIDs, and the prevention and treatment of adverse effects. Opioids includes guidelines for opioid drug selection and routes of administration, and the prevention and treatment of adverse effects. Adjuvant Analgesics presents different types of adjuvant analgesics for a variety of pain types, including persistent (chronic) pain, acute pain, neuropathic pain, and bone pain. Prevention and treatment of adverse effects is also covered. Includes helpful Appendices that provide website resources and suggestions for the use of opioid agreements and for incorporating pain documentation into the electronic medical record. Covers patients from young adults to frail older adults. Provides evidence-based, practical guidance on planning and implementing pain management in accordance with current TJC guidelines and best practices. Includes illustrations to clarify concepts and processes such as the mechanisms of action for pain medications. Features spiral binding to facilitate quick reference.

Botanical Medicine

Author: Raymond Cooper
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 80.95 MB
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"Based loosely on the workshop Clinical Pharmacognosy: Contribution of Pharmacognosy to Clinical Trials of Botanicals and Dietary Supplements, held at the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) meeting in Portland, Maine"--P. [xi].

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Author: T. Andus
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Pub
ISBN:
Size: 34.13 MB
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Several international symposia on chronic inflammatory bowel disease over the last few years have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of this condition. Molecular biology and new analytical techniques have continuously improved our knowledge of mucosal immunology and of inflammatory reactions. Progress in this field is very rapid and has implications for diagnosis and treatment, and makes it important to have a scientific exchange between basic research and clinical practice. This volume, the proceedings of Falk Symposium No. 96, held in Freiburg, Germany, October 30- November 1, 1996, documents the transfer of knowledge between clinicians and basic scientists, and clarifies the definitions used in daily practice such as active disease, refractory diseases or remission. The book will open new aspects for future research and clinical work in the field of inflammatory bowel diseases.

Pain Procedures In Clinical Practice E Book

Author: Ted A. Lennard
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 1437737749
Size: 75.74 MB
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In the 3rd Edition of Pain Procedures in Clinical Practice, Dr. Ted Lennard helps you offer the most effective care to your patients by taking you through the various approaches to pain relief used in physiatry today. In this completely updated, procedure-focused volume, you’ll find nearly a decade worth of new developments and techniques supplemented by a comprehensive online video collection of how-to procedures at www.expertconsult.com. You’ll also find extensive coverage of injection options for every joint, plus discussions of non-injection-based pain relief options such as neuromuscular ultrasound, alternative medicines, and cryotherapy. Offer your patients today’s most advanced pain relief with nearly a decade worth of new developments and techniques, masterfully presented by respected physiatrist Ted Lennard, MD. Make informed treatment decisions and provide effective relief with comprehensive discussions of all of the injection options for every joint. Apply the latest non-injection-based treatments for pain relief including neuromuscular ultrasound, alternative medicines, and cryotherapy. See how to get the best results with a comprehensive video collection of how-to procedures at www.expertconsult.com, and access the complete text and images online.

Wolff S Headache And Other Head Pain

Author: Stephen D. Silberstein
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN:
Size: 43.75 MB
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The 8th edition of Wolff's Headache and Other Head Pain remains the definitive reference text in the field. Our knowledge and understanding of headache and its management have changed significantly in the twenty-first century. A new international headache classification has been adopted; headache pathophysiology and genetics have advanced; and epidemiologic studies have burgeoned. We have greater insights into the diagnosis and treatment of the secondary headaches. New treatments are available for primary headache disorders, including migraine, cluster, and chronic daily headache, and our understanding and knowledge are increasing by means of ongoing trials. The 8th edition encompasses all of this new material, with all chapters updated and many new authors added.

The Handbook Of Cannabis Therapeutics

Author: Ethan B. Russo
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136752854
Size: 55.51 MB
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Learn the facts behind the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of controversial cannabis therapeutics The Handbook of Cannabis Therapeutics: From Bench to Bedside sets aside the condemnation and hysteria of society’s view of cannabis to concentrate on the medically sound aspects of cannabis therapeutics. The world’s foremost experts provide a reasoned, thoroughly researched overview of the controversial subject of cannabis, from its history as a medicine through its latest therapeutic uses. The latest studies on the botany, history, biochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, clinical use for various illnesses such as AIDS, epilepsy, and multiple sclerosis, and side effects of marijuana are all examined and discussed in depth. This comprehensive resource is a compendium of articles from the Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics—with additional contemporary commentary. It presents startling research that explores and supports the medicinal value of cannabis use and its derivatives as a valid therapeutic resource for pain and inflammation, for several illnesses less responsive to other therapies, and even for certain veterinary uses. Cannabinoids such as nabilone, THC, levonantradol, ajulemic acid, dexanabinal, and others are extensively described, with a review of new indications for cannabinoid pharmaceuticals. The book is carefully referenced to encourage your examination of previous studies and provides tables and figures to enhance understanding of information. The Handbook of Cannabis Therapeutics discusses: the uses of cannabis in Arabic, Greek, Roman, and early English medicines absorption rates pharmacokinetics pharmacodynamics separate extracts versus the use of cannabis in its entirety the therapeutic value of the endocannabinoid system cannabinoids and newborn feeding a comparison of smoking versus oral preparations clinical research data on eating cannabis therapeutic uses as appetite stimulant treatments in obstetrics and gynecology medicinal treatments used in Jamaica the use of cannabis in the treatment of multiple sclerosis the benefits versus the adverse side effects of cannabis use The Handbook of Cannabis Therapeutics is a reference work certain to become crucial to physicians, psychologists, researchers, biochemists, graduate students, and interested members of the public.